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Data for Isoscape

I am in the process of creating an isoscape for the stable isotopes in precipitation (2H and 18O). Does anyone know of any other databases besides GNIP (IAEA) that have further entries (especially ...
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2 votes
1 answer
87 views

Would covering part of Lake Mead with large sheets of bubble wrap reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation?

I have been recently thinking about how the water level of Lake Mead keeps dropping due to its high water evaporation rate brought on by recent years of historical drought conditions. The continuous ...
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  • 323
1 vote
2 answers
49 views

Formation of steam underground

In the process of drilling holes in the ground, if water was introduced, could it reach equilibrium vapor pressure, flash to steam and expel drill bit, drilling rod, and other debris up and out of the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
643 views

Do scientists ever make rock vapor in a laboratory? If so, is it ever used to study planetary or lunar formation?

This answer to What is the nature of "rock vapor" in this description of the formation of the Moon? explains what "rock vapor" is and how scientists use the concept to understand ...
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11 votes
4 answers
4k views

How plausible is it that "a portion of the ocean's floor" could suddenly be "thrown up to the surface" as described in this Lovecraft story?

This question came to me after reading H.P. Lovecraft's "Dagon"- the protagonist has fallen asleep drifting on the ocean in a small boat. He wakes up one morning to discover he's been ...
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  • 111
2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Is it possible to reliably infer the anthropogenic contribution to the post-industrial rise in $\ce{CO2}$ from $^{14}\ce{C}$ observations?

There have been several papers [failures of the review process] that have argued that the post-industrial rise in atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ is primarily a natural phenomenon, or have sought to minimise ...
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1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Precision Agriculture using IOT System [closed]

Before asking my agriculture related question I would like to give some context being from an engineering background . Today Internet of Things (IOT) and Embedded firmware/hardware modules ...
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1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Complex interpolation for Isotopic data

I have another question, is there a package that interpolates precipitation data taking into account mountains and oceans? I have so far used Numpy and Basemap but as you can see in the code, the data ...
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3 votes
0 answers
33 views

What is the best way to interpolate Isotopic data and display them?

I want to interpolate isotope data of precipitation and display it on a map. The data are available as a CSV file. ...
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  • 41
0 votes
0 answers
40 views

The problem of the dissimilarity in the range of data values ​between the gridded data and the channel database in geosoft

My question is about the problem when displaying the eU radiometric map of my study area, as the range of values ​​for the eU map is much larger than the actual range values ​​of the eU channel in the ...
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  • 1
2 votes
0 answers
30 views

Visible satellite imagery, atmospheric anomaly (descending air) in cumulus fields?

When looking at GOES satellite imagery, in the visible channels. I have noticed these "lines" if you will, usually forms in Cumulus fields. I understand the process of the 'Mackerel sky' (...
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  • 21
3 votes
1 answer
40 views

Is there a way to calculate crater depth?

For the sake of the example, let's assume a crater on Earth roughly twelve miles in diameter. Is there a way to calculate a range between how deep or shallow this crater would be?
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  • 161
1 vote
0 answers
57 views

Urban heat island effect during winter time?

Say a given populated area is considered an "urban heat island", this would mean that during summer, temperatures will be higher in that area. But what about winter? One could argue that ...
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3 votes
1 answer
72 views

Predicting rock type from seismic processing

In reflection seismology, we create a source with an airgun and then use receivers to register acoustic waves (an approximation) at the surface. From these measurements, we can predict a velocity ...
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6 votes
2 answers
107 views

Can "meanders in meanders" form naturally?

I recently rafted the San Juan river in Southern Utah, which flows into the Lake Powell reservoir. When the water levels in Lake Powell were very high, it extended far upstream into the San Juan ...
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4 votes
1 answer
27 views

Minimum temperature in Growing Degree Day (GDD) - from daytime or from the whole day?

I want to calculate growing degree days. I have hourly data of temperature between the hours of 00:00 and 23:59. I want to calculate the growing degree days and I saw that I need the minimum,maximum ...
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  • 143
2 votes
0 answers
62 views

Why are the Himalayan rivers highly tortuous in the mountain reaches?

"In the Himalayan reaches, the course of these rivers is highly tortuous, but over the Plains they display a strong meandering tendency and shift their courses frequently." This is what I ...
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4 votes
1 answer
58 views

Cluster of cow burps now mapped; which satellites contribute to GHGSat's high-resolution maps of ppb levels of methane emission? How do they do it?

CNN's April 30, 2022 Planet-warming emissions from cow burps have been seen from space begins: The emissions were detected by environmental data company GHGSat's high-resolution satellites in ...
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4 votes
1 answer
178 views

How did hydrogen make its way into proto-Earth?

Background I read (what I could understand of) this article in which authors Yuan and Steinle-Neumann "...use advanced quantum mechanical simulations on silicate and metallic melts showing that ...
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  • 141
5 votes
1 answer
105 views

How do meteorologists accurately measure outdoor air temperature? There's sunlight, local trapping of air, radiant heat, precipitation

I'd like to know how the state-of-the-art meteorological direct, localized measurements of the temperature of the air is measured. If you put a thermometer in sunlight it may read high. If you put it ...
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  • 7,156
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

When is the carbon stored in fossil fuels released back to the atmosphere under natural conditions?

On which time scale is the carbon stored in petroleum and black coal released back to the atmosphere under natural conditions? Exploiting fossil fuels and burning them releases the carbon today, but ...
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1 vote
0 answers
31 views

How to maintain average elevation of water on uneven terrain? [closed]

We have uneven terrain (street) and want to distribute water fairly equally to all locations (homes). The issue is that the locations at the end get sufficient water and other locations need to wait. ...
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0 votes
0 answers
15 views

How to translate irradiance measurements from MERRA-2 datasets to GHI, DNI and DHI?

can someone help me make sense of the MERRA2_400.tavg1_2d_rad_ datasets? I want to know the global horizontal irradiance (GHI), the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the diffuse horizontal irradiance ...
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1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Which atmospheric parameters will give accurate result of electricity consumption of an area by using multiple regression model?

I have a dataset that gives values of temperature, Relative humidity Geopotential Ozone mass mixing ratio Potential vorticity Fraction of cloud cover Specific cloud ice water content Specific cloud ...
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4 votes
2 answers
55 views

What is the right term to describe the observation that your true bearing changes if you move in a non-cardinal direction on a globe?

I just came across a question on skeptics.SE that asked whether it is possible to sail a boat from the coast of Pakistan to the east coast of Russia in an uninterrupted straight line. A quick glance ...
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1 vote
0 answers
24 views

I'm trying to create a interactive matplotlib figure with a dropdown menu on a tkinter popup window but nothing displays

So I'm trying to create dropdown menu that loads different goes satellite data but when i embed the code to my code nothing displays but it displays perfectly on Notebook and yes i am using Visual ...
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2 votes
0 answers
14 views

How well can they localize the sources of these marsquakes using only a single seismometer? Does being in the shadow zone of the core help or hinder?

Phys.org's April 23, 2022 Two largest marsquakes to date recorded from planet's far side links to The Far Side of Mars: Two Distant Marsquakes Detected by InSight which contains the image below. ...
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4 votes
0 answers
48 views

When did mosquitoes reach Australia?

When and how did mosquitoes reach Australia? It's east of the Wallace line, so 'they got there from Asia' is not an obviously unproblematic conclusion. In general, when and how mosquitoes reached ...
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  • 549
5 votes
2 answers
5k views

Is it a coincidence that the circumference of the Earth in kilometers is almost $2^{12}$?

The circumference of the Earth has been measured to be $40,075 \,\pu{km}$, which is only $21 \,\pu{km}$ from $40,096 = 2^{12}$. For reference, $40,075 \approx 2^{11.992}$. This is probably a strange ...
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  • 67
2 votes
1 answer
29 views

What is the difference between permineralization and replacement

I am reading on the petrification process. I found that there are two processes which are permineralization and replacement. I am not sure I fully comprehend the difference between them. I wonder if ...
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  • 61
4 votes
1 answer
98 views

What materials are fossils made of?

I was reading on fossilization and I came across petrifaction. Are fossils that take the shape (have the shape) of the original organism made of only stone or iron? Can there be a fossil made of any ...
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8 votes
2 answers
657 views

Is "humidity" the quantifiable metric for mugginess?

I've always described somewhere as "humid" if the air feels very moist and muggy. So, in the US, I'm thinking of places like Texas (e.g., Houston) and Florida (e.g., Miami). I would consider ...
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1 vote
0 answers
22 views

What is the history behind the present day geology of California? What processes took place that led to the formation of each region as shown in fig?

This is the image showing the different geomorphic provinces of California. What led to the formation of these provinces, and what events took place that resulted in the diverse geological setting of ...
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4 votes
1 answer
81 views

Estimating meteorological visibility from air chemical and particulate composition

I have found here an answer that provides formula that only takes into account vapors, pressure and temperature - What is the formula used for atmospheric visibility? Is there an approach that also ...
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3 votes
0 answers
22 views

Topographic differencing using lidar

I have two lidar images which I want to use to do a topographic differencing. The two lidar images are of different spatial resolutions and are not co-registered. What is the best method to line the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
26 views

Signs of hydrocarbon contamination in soil?

So, let's say, ~completely theoretically~ you knew, beyond a reasonable doubt, a large oil company was doing something nefarious near you. They own a very strange property through a shell company. Now,...
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5 votes
1 answer
45 views

Clarification of dry deposition of particles

I found a formula for the dry deposition speed of particles and an electric circuit analogy to go with it. I would like some clarification on this figure: I'm mostly interested in the top right ...
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1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Variability in 4.5 billion year age of earth based on radioactive dating of meteorites?

Which meteorites in particular give an age of 4.5 billion years and which isotopes are used for radioactive analysis? Is there much variability if different meteorites or isotopes are used?
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3 votes
1 answer
71 views

For how long can mid-oceanic islands be volcanically active?

The island of St Helena in the South Atlantic was volcanically active for 5 million years, or maybe longer. Is this period of time unusual - which other mid-oceanic islands were active for as long as ...
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  • 161
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Does the collision of India influence the geology and geography of some of the other mountains of Asia, or just the Himalayas and Tibet?

This here is a nice and lovely map of Asia. Note that the teardrop-shaped Tibetan Plateau dominates the map, and we have India to thank. For the last 50 million years, it has been pushing upwards, ...
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0 votes
1 answer
20 views

Where can I find archived NAM/HRRR model runs?

I am looking for archived model runs for high-resolution North American weather models, i.e. NAM and HRRR stretching back 10+ years. Do these exist on the internet? Failing that, what's the next best ...
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2 votes
0 answers
13 views

Does Environment Canada offer archived radar data in gridded format like in the US?

I have seen social media-rologists (weather weenies on Twitter) using the Weatherscope app to display data from the Canadian radar network, which was recently upgraded to dual-pol. For many years, ...
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4 votes
1 answer
78 views

Effects of Dredging Estuary Channel on Water Flow

Is it possible to make some generalizations about the hydrographic effects of dredging a channel into an estuary? Or is it too complex a problem and each case must be considered independently? Let me ...
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1 vote
0 answers
19 views

How can i display NEXRAD data in 3d on matplotlib

How do i get nexrad data from KHGX (Houston) in 3D to display in matplotlib
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1 vote
1 answer
44 views

Air pressure on Mars below ground

As I understand, in deep mines on Earth the air pressure increases with depth. At what depth on Mars would the air pressure reach 14psi (97 kPa)?
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20 votes
2 answers
5k views

In the northern hemisphere summer, why are places in the north cooler than those in the south?

As the Earth's axis is inclined, during summer in the northern hemisphere places in the north are exposed to the Sun's rays for longer, so days are longer during summer (say in June - Aug). Yet, ...
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  • 301
3 votes
1 answer
119 views

What can make a river end just before an ocean?

In Mallorca, Spain, there is a river called Torrent Son Bauló. As visible in the picture, it ends just before the sea, seemingly blocked by the beach. What can be the cause of that? My guess is that ...
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1 vote
0 answers
39 views

gridded air pollution data for Japan

Do you know of any database where I can get past air pollution (sulfur oxides (SOx) - nitrogen oxides (NOx) - photochemical oxidants (Ox) - particulate matter (PM) - suspended particulate matter (SPM) ...
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0 votes
0 answers
31 views

How does carbon dioxide accumulate in the upper atmosphere if it is heavier than air [duplicate]

I am not a scientist but how does carbon dioxide make its way to the upper atmosphere form fossil fuel burning if it is heavier than oxygen (air), especially as the air is thinner in the upper as you ...
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  • 1
7 votes
2 answers
85 views

What kind of clouds did Joseph Kittinger see at 102,000 ft?

When Joseph Kittinger in Excelsior III dwelt at his peak altitude of 102,000 ft (31 km), he reportedly saw clouds at his altitude. What in the world could these clouds have been? Polar stratospheric ...
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