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5 views

Why REE concentration in a melt due to fractional melting is less than in a melt of same source rock due to batch melting?

I plotted this ree data for batch melting and fractional melting for the same source. From the plot we can see that the melt due to fractional melting is more depleted in REE than the melt due to ...
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0answers
13 views

Will California become a subduction zone in the distant future

California is one of the few places in the world that lie on a transform fault. My question is why considering the fact that North American Plate is moving westward shouldn't California be a ...
1
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0answers
22 views

Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
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0answers
11 views

Why and how do quartz crystals change from cloudy/translucent to clear/transparent?

Two pieces of quartz people have given to me at different times have become gradually clear over the space of a few years. Previously they were very cloudy, translucent without any detail visible ...
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0answers
27 views

How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Weather data of very low visibility

I am looking for a database or api that stores historical data of very low visibility conditions. The data needs to be reliable and consistent without too many gaps and in an interval of 1 hour. The ...
3
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1answer
47 views

Calculation of river width in relation to contributing area

I'm looking for a mathematical method to estimate the river width based on the basic topographic information of the specific sections of stream under consideration. Is there a formula to estimate the ...
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1answer
19 views

How to download FLDAS data from earth data

I am trying to download transpiration and snow cover data from earth data but unable to figure out how to do that
2
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2answers
66 views

What formed this rock slide formation near Hyndman Peak Idaho (photos)?

While hiking Hyndman Peak in Idaho a couple weeks ago we noticed a rock slide that appeared to be formed by a glacier, however it was on the west side of the mountain. It was also strange that the ...
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0answers
17 views

How do I find the temperature of the air mass, and how do I use a t-skew chart?

So the first problem I'm stuck on is this one: 1.An airmass is moving down a mountain from point A to B.At A the temperature is -10 celsius and the pressure is 890hPa. At point B the pressure is 1010 ...
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0answers
13 views

I currently observing and conducting my assignment on geomorphology [closed]

How can South Africa’s location contribute to the worldwide interpretation of landscape evolution?
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1answer
20 views

How much of the Earth's surface was covered with water during the Mesozoic?

When the Earth was at its warmest, and there were no ice caps at all, not even during the winter, and thermal expansion meant a certain amount of water took up more space, what ratio of Earth's ...
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1answer
37 views

How does rotating water affect turbulence?

I have been doing some DIYnamics with rotating water and non-rotating water. So I had a bucket filled with water on a rotating table, and waited for it to be in solid body rotation. I then dropped ...
23
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2answers
5k views

Why is Olympus Mons the largest volcano in the whole solar system?

Why is it that the volcanoes found in the Tharsis Montes region near the Martian equator, (one of which is Olympus Mons) so much larger than those found on Earth. In comparison, Hawaii's Mauna Loa, ...
1
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1answer
17 views

Is cloudfraction a proper measure of gaseous data expanse?

I was working with SO2 column data product from https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMSO2_003/summary?keywords=OMI%20Total%20Column%201-Orbit%20L2%20Swath I wanted to know, is the cloudfraction data ...
2
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1answer
40 views

How much role does radioactivity play in making Earth geologically active [duplicate]

A hot molten core is important for making the Earth geologically active. I believe most of the heat is from the time of the planet formation, and the high pressures due to everything pushing down to ...
3
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0answers
35 views

Has a hurricane ever crossed the Atlantic Ocean more than once?

I noticed that Paulette (2020) is still a named storm and is now approaching northern Africa and Spain. It is forecast to begin moving west again in the coming week. Has a hurricane / tropical storm ...
1
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1answer
32 views

Is there a name for a type of algorithm or processing which uses only one source of data as input?

Many algorithms in remote sensing take one or more different datasets as inputs and return some output. An example might be computing the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) injected into the stratosphere ...
1
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0answers
19 views

Megaspherulite growth

I have been fascinated by photos of these for a while, and I would like to ask how megaspherulites grow so large, when spherulites are normally quite small? I also noticed that all papers about the ...
1
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1answer
36 views

How to interpret the negative (actual) evapotranspiration values?

I am exploring FLUXNET sites for actual evapotranspiration (ETP) data (I convert the energy balance closure-corrected latent heat to ETP). I am interested in the half-hourly data. During the night we ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Is there a way to convert from Dip direction to Strike direction?

I have some set of recorded data in dip direction/dip format. I wish to transform then to strike/dip. I am currently having a hard time imagining how to convert from dip direction to strike direction. ...
1
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0answers
64 views

Nickel question - non geologist me

Why are there no giant nickel porphyry deposits like those of copper, or SEDEX deposits, like those of zinc? Why is all the nickel found in direct magmatic intrusions from the mantle to the surface? ...
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0answers
31 views

How do upper-level cyclones and anticyclones affect surface level winds?

Take something like the Bermuda High, for instance. I drew a crude illustration of it. It steers hot, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico towards the east coast of North America. But upper level winds ...
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0answers
22 views

In a mesocyclone, why does wind shear create a horizontal axis of spinning air?

Take a look at this picture. Moist updrafts interact with highly-sheared upper-level winds, which sets up a horizontal vortex. But why? What causes the air to be forced downward and to the right, then ...
4
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1answer
64 views

How do scientists confirm iron core at the centre of the earth?

How do scientists confirm iron core at the centre of the earth? We know scientists couldn’t yet drill to the core of our planet earth. Yet we know they confirmed there is a core of iron at the centre ...
1
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0answers
54 views

What will happen if the Greek letter names were exhausted for naming tropical storms?

The traditional list of hurricane names for the year goes from A to W, and, in the very rare occurrence that the W storm has formed and there is another tropical storm out there, then the Greek letter ...
2
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0answers
32 views

In the future, is the World Meteorological Organization going to allow Hurricanes Zeta, Eta, and Theta to exist simultaneously?

In the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season, we got all the way to Tropical Storm Zeta, which is the current record. This year we may very well surpass that. However, right after Zeta come Eta and then ...
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2answers
47 views

Self-sustaining aquarium in a jar?

I've seen some videos of people scooping up some water from a natural body of it, adding some sand and a few plants, and soon enough, they have a (near) self-sustaining aquarium. I've always wanted to ...
2
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2answers
40 views

Resource for scientific maps?

I need an administrative division map of england for a motivation for some scientific workshop. I don't want to cite wikipedia for this. Sadly I can't find any official resources and I don't really ...
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0answers
30 views

difference between climatology and meteorology only [duplicate]

Some basic differences are needed for children to understand only. The language should be simple enough so that any age understands for 5 to 99 or maybe 100.
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0answers
17 views

wrf_chemi file with 30 time steps

I creat wrfchemi file for my wrf-chem, my wrfchemi file has 30 time step, frames_per_auxinput5 = 30, 30, auxinput5_inname = "wrfchemi_d", auxinput5_interval_m = 60, 60, ...
5
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1answer
73 views

How much time is there between an underwater earthquake and the moment a tsunami hits the coast?

Tsunamis can be caused by underwater earthquakes, like the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. The precise value will likely depend on where the earthquake is relative to the coast. But what is the time ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Seismic activity in the UK [duplicate]

On 8th September 2020 there was a magnitude 3.9 earthquake here in the UK at 51.817°N 0.665°W which is approx. 10km/6.2miles east of Aylesbury or roughly 50km/31miles east of Oxford. This got me ...
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1answer
70 views

Has irreversible global warming already begun? [duplicate]

Climate is a high order nonlinear dynamic system and as such: is complex to study is not controllable via linear input as in we pollute less -> temperature drops...
0
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0answers
30 views

Forest fuel biochar burial

Record fires are blazing in the west coast, huge even compared to California's notorious summers. Dead plants and debris are crucial to get a fire started. This debris could be collected, carbonized, ...
1
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2answers
63 views

Does US have more forest fires in Sep 2020 than average?

I see lots U.S. wildfires on Zoom Earth, and lots news about them. Is this amount of wildfires normal? Or is this average? If over average, why?
5
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1answer
79 views

Has Antarctica's coastline been completely mapped? (map discrepancies)

Looking at different world maps, I noticed that there is considerable variety in how the coastline of Antarctica is depicted (even when taking the different map projections into consideration). Are ...
1
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1answer
35 views

What exactly are singular biomes as units?

So let's take the tropical rainforests of Earth for an example. The Congo, Amazon, Indonesia, Malaysia, and wherever else it may grow. Are all these aforementioned places considered parts of one biome,...
2
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0answers
45 views

Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
0
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2answers
85 views

Doesn't Increase of Potential Temperature with Height contradict Adiabatic Nature of Processes within Troposphere?

I refer to this question, I asked recently in the physics board: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/578308/doesnt-increase-of-potential-temperature-with-height-contradict-adiabatic-natur It ...
3
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1answer
59 views

“Major Lunar Standstill” causing high tides?

The Major Lunar Standstill, as the cycle is called, has been followed by serious starwatchers since the Babylonians. Like clockwork every 18.6 years, it triggers severe tide spikes, swells, and floods,...
3
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1answer
63 views

Frost in trees in the middle of summer (of 536)

It was so cold that frost formed inside trees in the middle of summer. Traces of this have been found in Russia, among other places. It is very rare for trees to freeze internally during the summer. ...
0
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2answers
94 views

Why it feels hotter at Night?

Why does the same temperature feel hotter at night? For example, 70 degrees literally feels hot at night when outside but during the day 70 degrees feels just mild when outside. Why is that? And ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Has there been any days in the lower 48 states of the USA with no recorded rain?

Today I looked at the radar for the US and it looked pretty sparse, which lead me to wonder, have there been any days/times with no rain within the entirety of the region?
4
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0answers
65 views

Dynamic of glacier retreat? (here: in Greenland)

During the last years I have taken many pictures of obviously retreating glaciers and empty moraines in Greenland - just like this one. Looks devastating, actually. In my understanding, the current ...
10
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8answers
3k views

Could an icy/extremely-cold asteroid/comet ever strike and cool the Earth?

This is obviously an imaginary question, but it seems like something computable (which I don't have the mathematical ability to do so unfortunately). P.S. I do not have in-depth knowledge about comet/...
3
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0answers
32 views

How to estimate the settling time of atmospheric particulates as a function of aerodynamic size?

Understanding the behavior of particulates in the atmosphere is important for modeling climate, weather and public health. They can be nucleation sites for rain, fog and smog, they can have thermal ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Can we calculate the pressure gradient impact on two cyclones with the Fujiwhara effect?

If two cyclones come together and orbit each other as per the Fujiwhara Effectis there a way to calculate the change in pressure gradient that each will face? If not, are there at least pressure ...
3
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1answer
38 views

Why is ozone layer so important when oxygen atoms absorb UV Rays?

Oxygen molecules absorb UV Rays and are converted to elemental oxygen atoms. These elemental oxygen atoms combine with molecular oxygen to go give ozone . When there is so much oxygen present in ...
1
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1answer
26 views

regarding four-way closure in structural geology

I am a little bit confused on the two concepts in structural geology, i.e., what is the relationship of anticline and four-way closure. My understanding is that anticline belongs to four-way closure. ...

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