# All Questions

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23 views

### Limestone formation

I live in Kingston, Ontario (The Limestone City). I have always been fascinated by the different thicknesses of strata in the exposed formations. I am wondering if there is any quick and fast rule of ...
32 views

### What geological structure is this & how is it identified?

What is this geological structure?
22 views

### What is the global warming potential (GWP) of any gas over a 1 day time frame?

Since in 100 years, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane is 28-36, what will be the GWP in 1 day time frame? Can it be calculated that way?
57 views

### Climate change: Human vs Natural [duplicate]

The planet has been warming for thousands of years. Human activity has accelerated the warming, but by how much? At some point in the future, without human intervention, the climate will have ...
10 views

### SH-waves and multiples

I study near-surface environments with seismic reflection methods - particularly those that analyze the SH-component of the elastic wavefield. The only source I've found that mentions multiples ...
11 views

### Temperature at 2 m MERRA2

I need MERRA2 data with Temperature at 2m. I'm checking on https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/FTPSubset2.pl but I can't find this variable. Suggestions where I can find them? Or anyone that did ...
141 views

### Can anyone explain the REAL reason why CO$_2$ increases global temperatures (not the simplistic greenhouse analogy provided for public consumption)?

The greenhouse effect analogy of global warming is that atmospheric carbon dioxide CO$_2$ absorbs some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth, and redirects a portion of that radiation back ...
69 views

### Global areas below sea level dataset?

Anyone know of an existing dataset of areas below sea level? Vector extents would be ideal. Doesn't need to be super detailed for my purposes, but it would be good if it included all areas (e.g. over-...
55 views

### Why is the level of UVA radiations on the earth surface the same throughout the day, while the level of UVB significantly varies?

I read on https://www.uexpress.com/ask-the-doctors/2018/1/17/no-matter-the-time-of-day UVA maintains the same intensity all day, which makes dawn-to-dusk sunscreen use important Whereas on ...
98 views

### When sediments are deposited, do they sink into the earth?

I was listening to a geology podcast describing how sedimentary rock forms and later turns into metamorphic rock. As a river lays down sediment, the lower layers can eventually be several kilometers ...
152 views
+100

### Considering the thin piece of material on the surface of Mars in the image below, is there anything like it on Earth?

The above is a magnified part of the original image below captured by the Curiosity rover on Mars on sol 1729 (June 17, 2017). From the added information with that raw image it can be estimated that ...
96 views

### Trees: What does “highly tapering stem” mean?

Trees: What does "highly tapering stem" mean? Taper is a function measuring steepness of change in crown diameter when height increases upwards. But "highly tapering" (sometimes also "high-degree of ...
54 views

### What is “sheltered site” (as opposed to “exposed site”)?

What is "sheltered site" (as opposed to "exposed site")? It's used in context of location of trees in bumpy ground areas and weather damage.
123 views

### How Can Adjacent Parts of an Oceanic Plate be Subducted in Different Directions?

It is claimed by some that the reason for gaps in chains of volcanoes generated by plate subduction is that some parts of the plate dive deep into the mantle and generate magma plumes, while other ...
9k views

### Is climate change a vicious circle?

My question refers to the current process of climate change. CO2 is rising, which leads to the greenhouse effect, which raises temperatures. This leads to more wildfires, which reduces number of trees,...
55 views

### Puddingstone info sign for Trail Store

I run a Trail Store (sell hiking maps, swag, etc) in Mahwah, NJ, USA. I'm trying to feature a plant and rock every season. The first rock chosen is puddingstone. I created the short sign below, ...
56 views

### High-resolution georeferenced population data [closed]

Can anyone recommend a good source for high-resolution georeferenced population data? I know that Natural Earth Data's Cultural Vectors e.g. contain the population per country. However, I am looking ...
70 views

### Can an aurora australis be bright enough to illuminate someone's face?

If two people are standing next to each other during a polar night, and the brightest possible aurora is occurring overhead, could one person see the other person's face clearly?
53 views

### Time for water vapor to generate more greenhouse effect than latent heat?

I have an argument with a climate change denier. He says the raise of water vapor in atmosphere causes a "much larger" cooling effet by taking vaporisation heat from the ground than the heat ...
78 views

### What is the heating effect of 1 ppm of a gas? [closed]

Is there a procedure in calculating the heating effect of 1 particle per million of a greenhouse gas?
44 views

### I need help identifying this rock/mineral [closed]

![enter image description here]I found this in a riverbed in Royal, Arkansas(https://i.stack.imgur.com/FBASn.jpg)
82 views

### What creates so much pollution in Africa?

Using AirVisual app I notice there is a huge patch of pollution in Africa. I cannot imagine there is a big economic activity to support that huge pollution across almost the whole continent. What ...
90 views

### 5G interference with weather observation, a thing already?

The scientific community expressed concern that global 5G would potentially threaten weather forecasts by scrambling frequencies in the microwave spectrum used for water vapor, atmospheric temperature ...
114 views

### Could we control the weather with a disk in space?

There is recorded evidence from solar eclipses that the moon's shadow has a detectable weather effect. If we placed a disk in space we could project a cold spot onto the planet and control it's ...
35 views

### Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
44 views

### What is the reason for this high outdoor VOC level with strange pattern of slow rise and sudden falling?

I have an Atmotube Pro air quality sensor placed outside in a cup with a large bowl placed over the top of it to protect it from the wind and any rain but to allow air to filter through easily. I'm ...
45 views

### Why is mass fraction always abbreviated wt% and not ma%?

In most geology papers, major elements chemical analyses are expressed as mass fraction of oxides, i.e. SiO$_2$ 64.2 wt%, K$_2$O 4.3 wt%, etc. The mass fraction unit is always abbreviated as "wt%". ...
9k views

### Global warming - why doesn´t mankind collect heat (thermal energy) and turn it into electricity or send it to space?

Why doesnt mankind "collect" thermal energy (there has to be some way: thermal couplings, detour over chemical energy, whatever) and after it has been concentrated at one point, turn it to electrical ...
49 views

### How do you compare Methane Ppm and carbon(iv) oxide [closed]

How do you compare Methane PPM and Carbon (iv) oxide? Should not they be calculated the same way? What is the CO2 equivalent calculation? Is there a way to compare the CO2 and Methane emissions?
171 views

### Could pumping ocean water into desert areas help reduce sea level rise?

I have been reading the discussion about pumping sea water into the desert for purposes of irrigation and changing the dry climate of that area, but what about to just purely offset the rising sea ...
493 views

### Estimate cloudbase height

I am trying to estimate cloudbase height using calculations from my weather station temperature/humidity, by calculating those two variables I can get estimated cloudbase height but what puzzles me ...
32 views

### Can someone tell me if this is quartz and what kind [closed]

Milky white opaque to and clear quartz like crystal with red to purple viens
22 views

### Why are Nowcasting SAF daytime products apparently truncated at solar angles of 20° (rather than the documented 10°)?

This image shows the Nowcasting Satellite Application Facility (NWCSAF) Cloud Liquid Water Path (LWP) product for 2020-01-08T12:00:00Z: Cloud LWP from NWCSAF. Source: NWCSAF. The Algorithm ...
4k views

### Why did the Australian bushfires cause pitch darkness during the daytime?

Saturday 4th January was truly an extroadinary and terrible day for the south-east corner of Australia. Skies turned pitch black at around 3-5 pm, when normally these areas would be in daylight. I ...
248 views

### How do you stop the Australian wildfires?

The Australian fires are the biggest anyone has ever seen and is increasing at a rapid rate causing smog all around the country, approximately 1 billion animals have lost their lives, as of 9 January ...
239 views

### Are Ice Ages Affected by the Freezing Out of CO2 in Antarctica?

The freezing point of carbon dioxide is -78.5 $\small\mathsf{^o}$C. Occasionally this low is exceeded in Antarctica, and small quantities of CO2 are frozen out, but are returned soon after to the ...
79 views

### Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
318 views

### Why are most effects of the predicted climate change negative?

Most of the commonly mentioned effects of the ongoing and predicted climate change are negative: more extreme weather effects, more destructive weather, more diseases, rapid extinctions, etc. Why is ...
67 views

### Increase Evaporation from oceans

I would like to ask you about evaporation from sea water. Can you increase evaporation by spraying seawater to the air? Is there any difference compared to freshwater spraying (aerosol particles)?
154 views

### Will Venus eventually overheat? When it happens, what will happen to it exactly?

Venus is a runaway greenhouse planet, so it won't let any of the heat absorbed from the Sun out by radiation, yet it will still take rays of energy from the Sun. So what will happen to Venus? Will it ...
961 views

### Gaps in locations of volcanos (Peru & Chile)

The figure below is taken from Reath, K. et al. (2019) A couple of things can be seen from this representation Volcanism seems to be strongly correlated with subduction zones, in this case the Nazca ...
423 views

### Could Australia's bushfires aerosols actually decrease global temperature?

Given the vastness and intensity of the bushfires that have been going on in Australia for weeks now, to the point they are generating their own weather and having an impact thousands kilometers away ...
92 views

### Is the ocean a carbon sink when considering only the biospheric component?

Most people knows that the ocean overall is a carbon sink, but a big part of the sink is due to chemical equilibrium (via dissolution) with the atmosphere (for ref: https://link.springer.com/article/...
57 views

### Which months in Japan probability lowest of natural disaster?

I want travel Japan but it gets earth quakes, tsunamis, typhoons. Which months lowest probability of these natural disasters?
17 views

### Finding free humidity data

I am trying to find historical humidity levels (ideally in percentage format) across the globe divided by sub-country regions or more granular. The time granularity would be daily, but hourly would ...
47 views

### Average thunderstorm days for each month

How can I find the average number of days with thunderstorms for each month for different cities in the United States? I’m doing a researching project for this and I need to find some links that will ...
4k views

### How did forests end up covering pyramids?

I went to Mexico and the pyramids are covered by vegetation. It's only after archeologists clean them that you can actually see the pyramids. Before that they looked like a natural hill, with soil, ...
450 views

### why continents do not subduct

In section 1.7 of Geodynamics by D. Turcotte & G. Schubet it is stated that "(...) continental crust cannot be destroyed by subduction" which I cannot completely understand. So far I ...