# All Questions

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15 views

### What is common in financial market crash and earthquake/Volcanic eruption?

Good day, I have two part question. I read all three phenomenon follow similar pattern if you do timeseries analysis. Is this true ? Where would be I able to find such data for earthquake/eruption ? ...
18 views

### What are the prerequisites for petroleum geology?

I'm in my late thirties and decided to get back to studying. I want to learn petroleum geology but it's been 10 years since I last opened any book, so I basically forgot tons of stuff that I learnt. I ...
50 views

### "Twelve people have stood on the moon, but only one person has been to the Gates of Hell." What Guinness World Record did George Kourounis receive?

In NPR's podcast and transcript For 50 years, 'The Gates Of Hell' crater has burned. Now officials want to put it out NPR's Scott Simon speaks to George Kourounis, Royal Canadian Geographical Society'...
28 views

### Difference between crystal and mineral

What is the exact difference between a crystal and a mineral?
228 views

### Are halcyon days an actual phenomenon?

According to Greek mythology, halcyon days are the seven days in winter when storms never occur. [Wikipedia] I assume that Ancient Greeks noticed a period in winter during which the weather was ...
1k views

### Why are there no volcanoes where continents collide with each other?

I understand that volcanoes occur where oceanic crust is subducted under continental crust such as the Andes. However, they don't occur at places like the Himalayas and Alps where continental crust is ...
33 views

### Oxygen-18 in saline water and freshwater

Which has higher $\delta {}^{18} \text{O}$, saline water or freshwater? I searched for this question and found many researches about the relationship between $\delta {}^{18} \text{O}$ and salinity. ...
49 views

### Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
48 views

### Natural Gas fields as power sources

Natural Gas fields as the name suggests are a source of natural gas which in turn are a major source of energy for almost every economy. Recently in news is Gateway to Hell of Turkmenistan, a natural ...
44 views

### What is the "healthiest" rock?

When talking about rocks, i.e. an aggregate of minerals, which type would be the "healthiest" I'm not talking about some voodoo crystal-healing stuff here, just if there is any rock ...
36 views

### Looking for solutions to present and implement an environmental project in the UK or [closed]

I have one environmental project (described here and here) which is not have any It is not welcomed in the country where I live, so I seek to run it in other countries like UK, UAE, USA or ... The ...
26 views

### Can anyone tell me the thickness of rocks in this map using strikes lines? [closed]

This map was given in our lab.
53 views

### Is spin-up really required to run the WRF-Chem model and if so, what determines the time period of the spin-up?

For example, I am interested in making a simulation for some chemical species for 2019. I am planning to provide NCEP/GDAS FNL meteorological data at 0.25 degree and CAM-Chem chemical boundary layer. ...
32 views

### Interpretation of certain maps related to weather

I am a student Pilot and basically we are asked to give weather briefing every morning using the charts shown here: https://mausam.imd.gov.in/imd_latest/contents/satellite.php#. https://mausam.imd.gov....
80 views

### Perihelion Vs Aphelion position of Earth

Why is the length of the apparent solar day less at aphelion than when compared to perihelion.
37 views

### In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
22 views

### Potential temperature constant in a well-mixed atmospheric layer?

Why is the potential temperature, defined as $\theta = T\Big(\frac{P_0}{P}\Big)^{R/c_p}$, constant in a well-mixed layer? I understand that the dew point temperature has to be parallel to a line of ...
36 views

### Efficient way to find spatial extrema in 2-D space time netcdf field

I have a 2-D latitude-time zonal wind netCDF dataset (such as this small sample from ERA-Interim) from which I want to find all local maxima of the zonal wind as a function of latitude, for each time ...
62 views

### How to measure Air CO2 Cheaply for a School Science Experiment

I'm helping my daughter with a science experiment for school to show the effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth. We have two small tabletop greenhouses with approximately 10 Liter volume and we're ...
88 views

### Pressure vs Temperature effect on humidity

I am a bit confused about pressure vs temperature effect on relative humidity. I know that air density is decreased with altitude, which means that there is more "space" between air ...
167 views

### How to calculate Ocean heat content?

I have subsurface temperature data for up to 300 m oceanic depth (at varying depth intervals). I want to calculate the ocean heat content for 0-300 m. The formula is: OHC = seawater density * Specific ...
63 views

### How does Siberian High develop?

For what I know so far about this phenomenon, it's a super cold mass of dry air accumulating in Siberia and Far East of Russia from September to April. I want to know how it accumulates cold air in ...
74 views

### How exactly can one make out the direction of and temperature of winds [closed]

I am trying to make a fictional world, but I want to be as realistic as humanly possible with the winds and climate. So my question is, knowing various parametres, how exactly can I make out what ...
32 views

### Formation of Clouds in High Pressure Systems (Western Australia - Perth)

High pressure systems are normally correlated with stable atmospheric conditions with little to no cloud cover, but due to this minimal cloud cover, doesn't that open up the ocean / ground moisture to ...
110 views

### Solutions to the global water shortages by damming the Baltic Ocean and the White Sea

Geopolitics and costs aside, would damming the Baltic Ocean and the White Sea be enough to provide a renewable supply of water to water stressed Central Asia? Central Asia because its closest and has ...
38 views

### Why is iron an essential part of iron fertilization and carbon sink?

I just started researching iron fertilization, which is the induction of carbon sinks in the atmosphere through depositing iron in large areas, specifically the ocean. Why do most of the studies ...
75 views

### Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks' Susceptibility to landslide

Which is more susceptible to landslide based on lithology compared to one another? Granite, Conglomerate, Sandstone, Mudstone I've been tasked to create a hazard map and was given a Geologic Map, ...
69 views

### Is there really less diurnal temperature variation in the mountains than at sea level?

I live in the Los Angeles area, at sea level. Nearby we have tall mountains where I like to go hiking. I've noticed something strange about the NOAA forecasts, which is that the forecasts in the ...
41 views

### Meterological measures -formula containing temperature, humidity, cloud, wind

I am looking for a meteorological measure (formula) of something which combines 2 or more of the following: temperature, humidity, cloud, wind, precipitation, UV I have searched, and for example, ...
74 views
+50

### What determines when the end of a volcanic eruption will happen?

The Cumbre Vieja volcano of La Palma Island, Spain, started to erupt 3 months ago. This week, the volcano stopped emitting lava and there remains only degassing processes. According to this news story,...
25 views

### Why does hydrodynamic escape not change isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere?

One of the means of atmospheric escape is the hydrodynamic escape. I read someplace that this doesn't cause a change in the isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere. But if you heat a group of ...
46 views

### Is there a bigger diurnal temperature variation in the summer because of a greater humidity?

It seems there is a greater variation in temperature during summer than during winter (image: maximal and minimal temperatures in Britain - source). My hypothesis is that this is because there's a ...
40 views

### Pansharpening of Landsat 8

If I have a four band Landsat 8 image (Blue, Green, Red and NIR) and pansharpen this image using the panchromatic band. How accurate would the pansharpening be for the Blue and NIR bands? See band ...
69 views

### Tornado prediction or forecasting by supercomputers [closed]

Can tornadoes be predicted or forecasted using supercomputers?
32 views

### I am searching for a word to describe the area of a glacial valley where the sides transition into the floor?

I have been tasked with proof reading before publication a Russian paper that has been translated into basic English and am searching for a word to describe the area of a glacial valley where the ...
719 views

### Should a primary consumer always be a herbivore?

BBC Bitesize defines primary consumers as the following, implying that (if I've interpreted this correctly) the term includes any animal that feeds on the primary producer — plants: This refers to ...
46 views

### Is the troposphere expanding?

If the Earth's atmosphere is warming it has to expand. Can we measure an increasing thickness of the troposphere?
48 views

### How, and where, are the unusual occurences of extinction debt playing out? [closed]

"Extinction Debt" describes the delayed disappearance of a species following some geologically fast change in an earth system that cannot be escaped. For example, it might takes years of ...
45 views

### Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
22 views

### What was the weather like in Pangaea's equatorial regions ( i.e. 23 latitude North to 23 latitude South )?

I've been having this burning question about the tropical climate of Pangaea but not sure how to ask until now. So far I've read that the carbon dioxide levels back then were much higher than it is ...
79 views

### Is New York bound to go underwater?

The latest IPCC report basically says that whatever we do, NY is a doomed city with no hope to remain above water due to climate change (among many other settlements) (TS-54). Why is the media not ...
146 views

### How much has Earth warmed since preindustrial times, after all?

Call it hair splitting, if you want, but I see at least three numbers in the latest IPCC report (e.g. on pages 7-51–7-52). The first one, "the total human forced GSAT change from 1750–2019", ...
33 views

### Didn't they get the atmospheric layers wrong in this image and which layers are those actually?

In the following image (from this article) they claim the orange part is the troposphere, the yellow/almost white part is the stratosphere and the light blue part obviously the mesosphere while those ...
46 views

### Internal rocks in glaciers

I am very new to the study of the cryosphere. I was looking at the GLIMS inventory for glaciers and observed red patches as shown below which the legend mentions the red patches as internal rocks. In ...
21 views

### Looking for Rock/Mineral Identification Flowchart

As a christmas present, I bought a box of minerals/rocks for my girlfriend, who recently got interested in geology. Unfortunately, she could not attend the identification class in university. The box ...
50 views

### How likely are caverns inside the mantle?

Almost everyone wrongly assumes that the Earth's mantle is liquid, but it isn't (only the outer core is). Is it possible then that there are hollow spaces within the mantle, similar to caves in the ...
76 views

### Did the K-T event throw dinosaurs to the moon? [closed]

When the asteroid that caused the K-T event hit the earth massive amounts of energy was released. In the ideal conditions, is it possible this could have thrown dinosaurs to the space and maybe even ...
41 views

### Why is felsic (granitic) lava so much more viscous when flowing (or trying to) than mafic (basaltic) lava?

A lower average temperature is, apparently, only part of the answer.... Several sites said composition, not temperature, explains most of the difference... And the difference in viscosity can be up to ...