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2
votes
0answers
32 views

How are boundary conditions considered in PDEs?

I'm new to numerical modeling and trying to figure out how things work inside business codes. Consider a 1D domain divided into small cells of width dx and at the East and West a Neumann conditions ...
4
votes
0answers
27 views

Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

What crops benefit the most from AgTech and particularly soil monitoring?

I am trying to understand the benefits of AgTech for different crops, and particularly IoT-based solutions like soil sensors (humidity, temperature, NPK). What are the crops that are benefitting the ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Why is the delta part of Jezero crater higher than the surroundings?

In images of Jezero crater on Mars, it looks like the delta fan is higher than the surrounding crater floor. This indeed seems to be the case with closer-up images from the Perseverance rover taken ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Electric phenomenon when tornado funnel disappears?

A video of a recent tornado in Germany shows two points of glowing light appear at the end of the lifetime of a tornado, when the funnel is already almost entirely retracted. Here is a video link. The ...
1
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0answers
20 views

How accurate are paleomagnetic orientation measurements?

I am curious what the modern accuracy for paleomagnetic azimuthal orientation measurements are. Let's say for a magnetite grain, is the orientation of the magnetic moment for a single crystal resolved ...
6
votes
1answer
85 views

Would home heat pumps provide large benefits against climate change?

Some facts I have learnt The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was developed to allow comparisons of the global warming impacts of different gases. Specifically, it is a measure of how much energy the ...
6
votes
1answer
45 views

Software for spatial interpolation of temperature and relative humidity data from weather stations

I'm working with time series of weather data (specifically, min/max daily temperatures and relative humidity) recorded from weather stations over an area of about 200,000 km2. I would be interested in ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Do I have gems in my yard [closed]

I have a question about my soil: the top soil has a purplish colour that reflects in the light. I have a borehole in my yard and my grandmother found a beautiful type of gem stone in the area of my ...
6
votes
2answers
127 views

How can smartphones help geologists in the field?

Smartphones have incorporated many sensors and some of them can be helpful for a geologist in the field: They have GPS, so it is possible to register your route in a Google Maps map. I find this may ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

About creating some waste market like power electrical market [closed]

I am working in one waste management project by cyberspace, which I have described here. So I am trying to create one advertisement site for creating fast connections between a seller of trash and ...
0
votes
1answer
92 views

How many people could be fed in this world? [closed]

I have heard in the radio in one discussion between an executor and economist that: The world of a humans have technology with the ability to feed 200 billion of its kind but the existence of 2 ...
5
votes
1answer
60 views

How to calculate sea level pressure from geopotential height?

For this, I am using python to plot and manipulate the data. I am using reanalysis data in a netcdf format for this problem. The data includes geopotential, for which I estimated the geopotential ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

What is grib2 telling me?

I am having trouble interpreting the output of wgrib2. I was expecting this command to produce a set of four measurements: one for each corner of a box at the specified pressure level. Instead I got ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Recommend books on Lat Long

I am a lyaman of Geography, and working on a project to calcuate x,y (from a rectangle coordinate system) to Lat,Long I searched on the net, and fell complete lost in the big world of geometry, ...
8
votes
1answer
72 views

Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Are there specific layers in the subsurface that come before gas or oil?

Currently, I've started working on a geophysics project. More specifically, I'm trying to find gas and oil reservoirs in SEGY files using deep learning. I've been reading about seismic reflection ...
20
votes
5answers
10k views

Why is the Arctic melting, but the Antarctic doing great?

Why is the Arctic melting, but the Antarctic doing great? That's what the latest IPCC report says (p. 2-192 of the Physical Science Basis provides a time series), but it says nothing, unless I missed ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

What is the difference between surface specific humidity and surface relative humidity?

What is the difference between surface specific humidity and surface relative humidity (it's wetter and dryer respectively)? The trends, according to the latest IPCC report, are opposite for the two, ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Source for USGS (probably not) seismic map of La Habra, California (Publication Date April 15, 1998)

I'm trying to find to original source (especially high quality version) of this conservation seismic map. I know that it probably came from USGS (or not) but looks like it out of print? I tried to ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

How to calculate mean annual maximum temperatures from monthly temperature values?

Apologies, this is a simple question. But I just want to make sure I am calculating the mean, annual maximum temperatures correctly. I have monthly temperature data from 1980 - 2019. In order to get ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

What are the boundary conditions for Navier's Equations of motion in seismic?

Navier's equations of motion in seismic have 3 solutions, according to how it is resolved (boundary conditions): for Vp (compression waves) for Vs (shear waves) for Vr (Rayleigh waves) I know the ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

How was the Mozambique Belt formed

I'm looking for some of the most comprehensive or significant articles on the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. If anyone can recommend some specific papers regarding the Geological history of the belt ...
2
votes
0answers
98 views

Is Radiocarbon dating flawed?

I posted this before on physics stack exchange, but it was deemed off topic, which is understandable, so I hope it won't be here. Recently, I stumbled upon an article by an individual named A.M. ...
7
votes
2answers
74 views

What would be the effects of a large forest fire on soil in other places?

Say a large forest fire took place. As I understand it, the smoke and ash would ride the wind and could be a health hazard even to people that are quite far away. My question is will it damage the ...
6
votes
0answers
39 views

Nobel prize Manabe's 1967 code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model

Does someone know where to find a (hopefully modern) version of the numerical code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model, the one Syukuro Manabe & Richard T. Wetherald used in ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Tectonic plates terminology

I have a very basic doubt regarding what the tectonic plates mean. In Wiki article Subduction is defined as: Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere is recycled into the ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

What happens if a cyclone can reach the warm waters of the Persian Gulf?

Historically cyclones were very very rare along the southern coast of Iran, maybe one in a century. But in recent years two cyclones hit Iran and northern Oman: Cyclone Gonu in 2007 and recently ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What Pa level should I use when looking at Relative Humidity data from CMIP6 models?

I have downloaded a number of future simulations for a group of GCMs from CMIP6 for the variable Relative Humidity (hur). I chose the 100000pa level to view the RH data in panoply for the EC-Earth ...
3
votes
2answers
52 views

When did the proto-Himalayas become non-volcanic?

In the normal course of events, when continents move toward each other, at least one coast will be associated with a subduction zone and corresponding volcanic activity. When the Indian subcontinent ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

How to calculate relative humidity with temperature and dew point? [duplicate]

I got this formula for calculating- 100x(EXP.((17.625x32)/(243.04+32)/EXP.((17.625x54)/(243.04+54)))=? The answer should be 43, but I Keep getting 65. Please, can anyone calculate this correctly? ...
2
votes
3answers
58 views

What methods/apparatus are used to model the early Earth? What do we know of their accuracy?

A friend of mine asked our teacher but the class was over and in online mode, I can't ask my teacher until the next lecture. It sparked my curiosity, I know we use carbon dating for finding the age of ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Staggered Grid finite difference implementation for modelling the elastic wave equation in 2D?

I am attempting to implement FD in 2D with a staggered grid scheme as per (Virieux 1986). I am having difficulties going from the numerical analysis formulas to the code for this particular scheme. As ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Can Hydrocarbons be beneficial? [duplicate]

Do these “fossil fuels” underground help maintain homeostasis in microbial ecosystem or aid in the growth of flora etc? Or are these substances: coal, animal remains and natural gas detrimental even ...
0
votes
1answer
121 views

Is anthropogenic global warming unavoidable under modern civilisation? [closed]

Which are the reasons to believe that the climate crisis can be solved within our type of civilisation, that is, without putting in jeopardy the important advances of humanity that have been achieved ...
4
votes
1answer
29 views

Why is Melanterite white or colorless?

I've read that melanterite (FeSO4*7H2O) is colorless or white and gets to be green to blue with increase in Cu2+ impurities. But from my chemistry experience I know that iron sulfate is green when in ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

What is the importance of hydrocarbons to the natural environment?

I have not been able to find any scholarly resources citing the impact of hydrocarbons in stasis underground. Hydrocarbons not being used for as a source of energy have very few noted needs for the ...
3
votes
2answers
85 views

How far into the past would you have to go before you couldn't breathe the atmosphere?

Not counting temporary events, like mass extinctions.
4
votes
2answers
720 views

Why can't we increase cloud coverage of the Earth to reduce mean temperature by flooding basins to increase evaporation?

There are millions of square kilometers of below sea level dry land, mostly in desert areas. Reducing the mean temperature of the earth by 2 °C requires increasing cloud cover of stratus clouds by ...
4
votes
0answers
69 views

How common are volcanic-induced rain events?

Last year I did an online summer course on remote sensing of volcanoes held by the University of Hawaii at Hilo. During the course, we had a presentation about the monitoring campaign during the 2018 ...
-1
votes
1answer
66 views

Where to find graphite rocks? [closed]

Where to find graphite rocks? I made researches in my city beach but I don't know where to find them.
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Boundary between areas having frequent versus infrequent forest fires

In some parts of North America, such as California, the climax ecosystem has frequent forest fires -- that is, relatively dry forest that in absence of human intervention would burn perhaps every ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Why do electrons drift Eastwards in the Van Allen belts?

Context The image below shows that one of the three particle movement patterns of radiation particles that are captured in the Van Allen belts is a longitudinal drift motion: However, I am ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

List of estuary/mouth size for European rivers

I am looking for a list that contains either the size of estuaries or river mouths of European rivers. Is there such a list available somewhere? I have been looking for a while but only found lists ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

"Down wash" as a source for mineral particles in the soil

In a previous IGCSE examination paper$^1$, the following question was asked and answer provided: State one source of mineral particles in soil. Marking Scheme: Accept any one of: rock; down wash; ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Does the magnitude of gravity stay the same at all points along the geoid [closed]

And how does this differ from the gravitational potential along the geoid (which is equal).
1
vote
0answers
76 views

How serious is the issue of vast quantities of methane release from an ice-free Arctic?

A bunch of climate scientists claim that humans will go extinct by 2026, when humanity crosses the major tipping point known as "Arctic Blue Ocean Event (BOE)". According to the climate ...
6
votes
2answers
106 views

What meteorological data is needed for air quality machine learning models?

Are there any studies that discuss what meteorological data I should look at if I am creating an air quality model with machine learning? That is, what should I extract from NCEI or ERA5 first if I ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

What causes the polar vortex to exist?

What causes the polar vortex to exist? I've tried to look this up online but I can't seem to find an answer.
6
votes
0answers
30 views

How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...

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