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1answer
389 views

Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
-1
votes
1answer
97 views

How are we going to handle oxygen shortage problem arising due to massive usage of current fossil fuel combustion and future Hydrogen fuel cell tech?

This question is being redirected from the Chemistry Stack Exchange community. The current corona pandemic has created a situation where in order to save lives, there is a huge huge requirement for ...
0
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0answers
18 views

How to calculate mountain front sinuosity index using DEM?

In tectonic geomorphology the Mountain front sinuosity index is one of the morphometric indexes. Smf = Lmf/Ls I have a DEM, so how do I use it to find the value? According to this diagram do I have ...
-2
votes
1answer
88 views

Does the Earth produces measurable gravitational waves? [closed]

Does the Earth produce measurable gravitational waves? Some recent experiments looking at low-frequency (3E-5 Hz) accelerometer data suggests that it does. The signal that I and others (including ...
0
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0answers
22 views

How to calculate change in volume of a container using rainfall data

I have 2 data. A container data, 3 containers(A1,A2 and A3) all are the same height, but each have varying water volume, the table consist of change of water volume (hourly) for the weeks 1 and 2. .. ...
0
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0answers
37 views

How are weather intensity scales created?

I am interested in the development of scales to measure extreme weather. For example, the Enhanced Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes, etc. How were they created? OK sure, I know ...
6
votes
6answers
2k views

How can a starting point south of the north pole to an endpoint north of the south pole be halfway around the world?

NOTE: I first posted this question to the GIS StackOverflow site, but someone there said my question would be better suited to the Geography or Earth Science site. GIS seems the perfect place for the ...
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Will Lithium batteries mean we have to exploit Co-Mn-Ni nodules from the seafloor?

Co-Mn-Ni goes into some of the most efficient Lithium Ion battery chemistry. It is very convenient that Co-Mn-Ni is also readily available from the ocean seabed. Polymetallic nodule contains various ...
1
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0answers
41 views

How do pilots of Deep Sea Vehicles operate the control surfaces and thrusters from inside a pressure hull? [closed]

A Deep Sea Vehicle (DSV) like Trieste or Limiting Factor or now Fundouzhe have control thrusters, ballast that has to be dumped, and other equipment to operate the DSVs. But the pressure hull is a ...
-2
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0answers
46 views

Should we have an “Ocean Exploration” site? [closed]

Fellow Earth enthusiasts, I was motivated by Space exploration's site, space.stackexchange.com to try and create a similar technology site for ocean exploration. Perhaps: ocean.stackexchange.com? ...
2
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3answers
105 views

Source of heat in the center of Earth

If I read around most of comments and articles on the Internet give two main reasons for the heat found in the depths of our planet : Super high pressure at the center of it Radioactive decay I need ...
3
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0answers
64 views

Deep Sea Exploration - Is there a purpose to human exploration?

Should humans explore the deep ocean (1800meters or deeper) or is this the realm of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles)? It seems that such deep ocean exploration is best done by AUVs. They are ...
-1
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0answers
46 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere? [closed]

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

How to convert mol m-2 s-1 CO2 emission to Megaton day-1 (MtCO2 per day)?

I am working on the global CO2 emission using a model dataset. The model provides the CO2 emission in mol m-2 s-1. How to convert mol m-2 s-1 CO2 emission to Megaton day-1 (Mt per day)? Regards
-3
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0answers
28 views

daylight savings time [closed]

could anyone please explain to me the math involved behind daylight savings time ? like instead of telling that "we wake up at 6am". we could just tell "we wake up at 4am" rather ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Avoiding fake trinitite

I would like to get some trinitite for my rock and mineral collection. The problem is that there is apparently a lot of fake trinitite for sale in the internet. How do I avoid the fakes, and be sure I ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Are the polar vortexes main cause of ozone hole?

I read some articles and news from various sources that the Arctic ozone hole has recovered. Some people claim that less emission of harmful gases due to covid-19 made this happen. AFAIK, the past few ...
0
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0answers
53 views

P-Value of Anthropogenic Climate Change [closed]

Is there a p-value associated with anthropogenic climate change? If not, why so?
1
vote
1answer
51 views

How does a whirling hygrometer work, how does it differ from static dry/wet bulb thermometer, and how to obtain humidity from its readings?

Answers to my previous question How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings? provide equations for converting the two temperature measurements to a relative humidity. In ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Have “frosty meteorites” ever been observed soon after landing? Are there photos?

This answer to Would a gold-containing meteor cause it to “rain” gold? says (in part): Meteors, when in space, are very very very very cold. Their travel duration in Earth's atmosphere is very short, ...
5
votes
0answers
107 views

How much does the biosphere contribute to Earth's entropy production?

Papers like 1, 2, etc. and the work of Axel Kleidon (e.g. 3) suggest that the the biosphere increases the production of entropy of Earth but I'd like to know if we could quantify this in a simple way. ...
3
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0answers
21 views

Ionosonde.Why are electron density profile expressed in plasma frequency?

I found this image of an electron density profile. ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/ionosonde/data/RO041/individual/2021/046/image/RO041_2021046113000_EDP.PNG However, the profile is expressed in terms of &...
1
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0answers
39 views

How to find inertial advective component of ageostrophic wind in natural coordinates

How do you derive the components of the inertial advective wind in natural coordinates? The vector form of the inertial advective wind is: I have been able to find the components in cartesian ...
-1
votes
1answer
80 views

Is surface temperature relevant for the creation of high- and low pressures areas?

Trying to truly understand high- and low-pressure systems, I find explanations contradicting. The question is: Where is the mistake in my line of thoughts? Looking from a surface point of view: More ...
5
votes
1answer
101 views

How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?

I would like to know how good the weather data coverage is on the surface of the world’s oceans, and how much it would improve climate research/models if weather observations from ocean-going vessels ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Derivation of Geomagnetic field lines (after interaction with solar wind)

I understand that without the solar wind, the Geomagnetic field would essentially be that of a dipole. With the presence of the solar wind, this field is distorted, as can be seen in many images that ...
5
votes
1answer
110 views

As the number of ocean dead zones increases, is the world's primary source of atmospheric oxygen (phytoplankton) at risk?

Disclaimer: I am not a scientist. I was wondering if there is a concern that the world will run out of breathable atmospheric oxygen as the number of dead zones in the ocean increases with global ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

How to convert Relative humidity (%) or Specific humidity (kg/kg) to Air humidity (mb)?

The model I use needs the data of Air humidity and unit is 'mb' (there is no other explanations about this variable), but now I only have two datasets and there are Relative humidity (%) or Specific ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Were Carboniferous plants more efficient sequestering $\ce{CO2}$ than present plants?

The Carboniferous was a period where CO2 levels fell drastically. Source: Geologic history of seawater: A MAGic approach to carbon chemistry and ocean ventilation I think the main reasons are ...
1
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0answers
16 views

Conversion of SEG-Y relative to MSL

I am working on the conversion of CSF file from SonarWiz into SEG-Y data. However, it comes back always related to the Sensor depth/altitude and never to the MSL. I have tried changing the bytes from ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

What is the typical chemical composition of Earth's mass gain

Consider this : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_mass#Variation To quote: The main factor in mass gain is in-falling material, cosmic dust, meteors, etc. are the most significant contributors to ...
6
votes
1answer
56 views

Calculating Love numbers (tidal deformation) for non-homogeneous planets

I have a question about planetology. I'm not sure if it belongs here, but the astronomy stack exchange seemed a bit odd, too. I would like to enhance my understanding of Love numbers. Love numbers ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

What is this geographical feature? (as seen in maps)

Can someone help me identify this peculiar geographical feature I've noticed in satellite imagery? This particular screenshot is from satellite imagery of northern Russia, however this kind of ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Extinctions and geomagnetic inversions [duplicate]

The article Did the Earth’s magnetic field affect our evolution? on Pledge Times cite this Science paper to assert: These authors speculate that, in the Pleistocene, large mammals could have reached ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Which ocean evaporates the most water per surface area?

I guess the Pacific Ocean evaporates the most water because of its size. But which of the major oceans evaporates the most water per square meter?
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Is it possible to convert carbon dioxide into a solid at low cost?

Is it possible to reduce the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by converting it into a solid, thus reducing the level of greenhouse gases?
13
votes
5answers
3k views

With all the rain Seattle gets, why is widespread flooding relatively rare?

The Puget Sound region is wedged between the Pacific and the Cascades...you'd think with all that rain (and snowmelt in the warmer months), there would be catastrophic flash flooding in lowland areas, ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Where can I find a list of mountain chains on the Earth?

I want to make an app for smartphones that lists the mountain chains of the world. Where can I find a list of all mountain chains that are presently outspread on the Earth?
0
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0answers
37 views

Where can I find a list of the world's surface ocean currents?

I want to make an app for smartphones that list ocean currents in the world. I have my notes for an oceanography course I undertook at University for deep currents as NADW, ABW etc, but I have not a ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

What is the fastest ocean deep current?

The Gulf Stream is the fastest ocean current in the world with peak velocities near 2m/s. Source: marine.coastal.edu What about deep currents, North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water, etc? ...
6
votes
1answer
99 views

Was the Caribbean Sea a closed sea during the last glaciation?

Taking a look at Google Earth the straits between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean are not very deep. The sealevel during the last glaciation was 120 meters lower than the present level. Was ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

How big was the eye of the El Reno tornado?

As far as I know, the EF-3 El Reno tornado is by far the largest tornado since meteorologists have started observing them. Tornadoes also have eyes, like hurricanes, but are way too small compared to ...
5
votes
2answers
104 views

How is the concentration of particulate matter calculated per cubic meter

I have some data about PM10, PM2.5, i.e, how much is generated per day (in kilotonnes) by some sector, say from vehicular emissions. It can be converted to micrograms but I don't know how standard ...
3
votes
0answers
76 views

What is the maximum size that a drop of rainwater can reach?

This USGS article: "Raindrops are Different Sizes" assures: We can call the growing droplet a raindrop as soon as it reaches the size of 0.5mm in diameter or bigger. If it gets any larger ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

Complete missing outcrop problem

Given A is upper limit of sand stone, B is the lower limit of the planes that are equal in distance and dip. Dip angle is 29 degrees. Complete the outcrop of this map. —————————————————————————- Now I ...
2
votes
1answer
180 views

Who are winners from the global warming? Are there any?

As a person living in Russia, I always had mixed feelings when hearing appeals to fight global warming. On the one hand, I completely understand that it is going to be a disaster for lots of people. ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

Are wetlands effective against climate change?

In the region where I live, there is a trend that conservation organizations are advocating the conservation and re-valuation of wetlands. Aside from boosting biodiversity and providing other ...
1
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0answers
62 views

What kind of rock is this? [closed]

A few years ago in Venezuela, parque nacional de Cainama, the tourist guide found and gave me this rocks, he told us that a geologist told him that those could be radioactive but no one believed him. ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

How did this stone become encased within different rock?

My father, in his younger years, was a stone mason in Cincinnati Ohio. A couple of decades ago he was building a wall of some kind. He would fetch rock from a creek bed, haul it to the construction ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Can I regard the grayscale of a RGB color image as a panchromatic image?

Here I have a remote sensing dataset with many bands (e.g., blue, green, red, ...), and I use the blue, green and red bands to get a true color image. I want to know if I can get a panchromatic band ...

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