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Converting EET to UTC ignoring EEST

I have measurements of pollutants. data = data.set_index(data.index.tz_localize(timezone('EET'), ambiguous='NaT', nonexistent='NaT').tz_convert('UTC')) This command converts the EET time to UTC. It ...
Dimitris Tsiaousidis's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
12 views

Does a weather authority rate/measure floods after they happen?

The 100-year flood line runs through my property. I am always curious when I see flooding how close to a 100-year flood it might be. Is there any way to know? Does any official service/site post data ...
JWess's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
15 views

conserving mass while converting sigma levels to geopotential (z-levels)

I am using a sigma-level ocean model, so that I have dh (layer thicknesses), salinity and bathymetry (bottom depth) for some area (lon-lat box). Now, I would like to calculate the amount of salt at ...
msi_gerva's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
2 answers
39 views

Extracting CO2 from the atmosphere and injecting it into fracking wells

Assuming you could extract CO2 from the atmosphere, could you inject it in fracking wells to store it? Would CO2 likely escape? What would the effect of this be on ground stability etc. and on the oil ...
Aaron's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
0 answers
40 views

How can friction and Coriolis force balance each other out in the Ekman layer?

In most derivations of the Ekman spiral we begin by assuming a steady state in which only frictional (drag) and Coriolis forces are acting- and then we equate them to get the spiral. I have two issues ...
bog creature's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Weather patterns and national borders

I've been observing weather patterns, especially rain, and to me it looks like there is a correlation with national borders. Of course it is nonsense to think rain clouds stop at national borders to ...
Gyro Gearloose's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
13 views

CMIP6 ts versus tos for Pontential Intensity calculation

As per the title, I am interested in computing the potential intensity (PI) and wondering what the difference between surface temperature (ts) over the ocean and sea surface temperature (tos) in CMIP6 ...
Giuniper's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
9 views

Can the Lorentz force cause currents that accelerate electrons and cause auroras?

I'm asking this question based on a fragment of this (https://pubs.aip.org/physicstoday/article-abstract/61/7/68/1017143/How-do-auroras-form-A-key-element-is-a-current?redirectedFrom=PDF) If the ...
vengaq's user avatar
  • 201
3 votes
1 answer
89 views

How did Mt. Etna get so good at blowing smoke rings? Is this new?

Screenshots below are from Bloomberg News' April 10, 2024 Italy's Mt. Etna Puffs Out Smoke Rings (also available at AP News' April 7, 2024: Mount Etna blows spectacular smoke rings into the sky). Some ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,148
3 votes
1 answer
79 views

Why hasn't all the water on earth evaporated and been frozen at the poles?

It seems like over a long enough time scale, if the surface temperature of a planet varies between perennially below freezing and occasionally above freezing, that all of the water on the planet would ...
Cirdec's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote
0 answers
17 views

Mountain formation and stress release?

I have been studying mountain formation, and have some questions about how orogeny and plate stress release are related... Does orogeny contribute to the release of accumulated stress within the ...
sha chow's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

What would be effects if sun was smaller, but had same mass?

What would be the effects on Earth if the sun was half its current diameter, but retained the same mass?
JP_7's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
0 answers
25 views

Which position is more sensitive to feeling an earthquake?

There was an earthquake today in the NYC metro area. I know a few people that didn’t feel the earthquake while standing. Whereas everyone that was sitting felt it. Are those standing less apt to feel ...
Bacco's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
8 views

Do I have the right conceptual understanding of the North Atlantic Current and its effect on climate?

I have worked with several mathematics equations related to climate change in a math course I have taken. However, I want to make sure that what I have gleaned from this math aligns with what is ...
AAAA's user avatar
  • 85
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

Where does snow falling at the polar ice caps originate?

When snow falls at the polar and Greenland ice caps, where did the water originally evaporate from? I can think of two ideas: The water mostly evaporated from the nearest ice-free ocean because water ...
Peter A's user avatar
  • 553
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Earth science dataset for binary classification

I'm a statistician looking for a dataset in earth science for a binary classification task, i.e., the response variable should be binary. My goal is to test a newly developed version of the invariant ...
user24334's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
27 views

How to determine Lateral Boundaries of Aquifers

I grasp the concept of using elevation data to delineate surface water basin boundaries quite easily as surface basins have visible features. I'm curious about understanding the less visible aspects ...
Mukhtar Abdi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
25 views

How do you understand the occurence of an alteration zone?

When you see an altered (silicification-argilic-FeO / trachyandesitic) rock outcrop, how do you understand the cause of the alteration. Is it occured by hot or cold alteration? Was it occured through ...
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
34 views

Possibility of naturally cut diamonds

Is there a chance that diamonds may naturally occur as any of the geometric shapes in such a way that it is naturally brilliant and cut? Obviously, I am not expecting really sophisticated cuts but ...
Dr. user44690's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
82 views

Is the surface of the Indian ocean really 106 meters below sea level?

CNN's July 24, 2023 There is a ‘gravity hole’ in the Indian Ocean, and scientists now think they know why links to the Geophysical Research Letter (Pal & Ghosh 2023) How the Indian Ocean Geoid Low ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,148
3 votes
1 answer
53 views

What is the pitch and roll in a tiltmeter sensor?

I wonder if you could help me to understand what the pitch and roll mean for an tiltmeter sensor? I have tiltmeter data and I don´t understand at all how it works. If you can recommend literature on ...
Miguel 's user avatar
  • 383
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Is there a structural deformation pattern on explosion caldera wall?

We know that with any type of faulting, riedel shears and veins occur on the blocks. What about explosion caldera walls. Is there any kind of deformation pattern to seek on the remaining wall (block)
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
12 views

Monazite-(Ce): Non-integer ratios of substitutable elements

I've been looking at EDS data for monazite-(Ce): And I noticed that (at the O=4 column) the ratios of substitutable elements are not integers. I thought that it was because of measurement errors, but ...
Leo's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Have we mined more on earth than 1% mass of moon? Because doing that to moon could potentially effect its gravitational pull

They say humans would need to mine 1% of moons mass to have an effect on earth's gravitational pull. Since the moon is 1.2% of the size of earth (tiny) & the minerals mined on the moon will be ...
Stormulan's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
9 views

hi, any ideas how to convert Rcd and Dst seismic data into SEGY?

any ideas how to convert Rcd and Dst seismic data into SEGY?
Morad Muafa's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
34 views

How do scientists determine the height measurement of a tsunami wave after the event?

How is information concerning the height of a tsunami obtained? Does not the incoming and out going wave scour the area of natural and man made structures, hindering an accurate measurement?
LA2Phx's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Zoeppritz equations

I have a question regarding zoeppritz equations. The equations from Telford are as follwoing: When trying to put in a matrix form, by converting amplitudes to reflection and transmission coefficients,...
user31690's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
28 views

Providing wind direction with wrf-python package

I understand that wrf.getvar will give both the speed (dim 0) and the direction (dim 1) V1 = wrf.getvar(ncdin, "uvmet10_wspd_wdir", units="m s-1",timeidx=wrf.ALL_TIMES,meta=False)[...
Dimitris Tsiaousidis's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

How the salinity of the North Atlantic is changing

The Arctic has lost 3.6 million km^2 of sea ice due to climate change. This is also referred to as freshening. Are there any studies focussing on the development of the salinity of the North Atlantic?
Weiss's user avatar
  • 1,989
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

How do these holes form?

I was casually browsing the google earth street view map today. And I noticed strange cavities in a rock wall on Henderson Island, a coral island in the South Pacific. What could have caused this to ...
Thomas Peng's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
78 views

If the Pacific Ocean is 750 million years old, Why can't oceanic crust be older than 200 million years?

Since the first rocks of the pacific Ocean plates solidified from magma coming out of a rift 750 million years ago, shouldn't they be much older than the maximum age of oceanic crust (around 200 ...
Antozoa's user avatar
  • 29
-1 votes
0 answers
21 views

Why does Ni and Fe alloy that forms the outer core produce earth magnetic field?

Earth magnetic field is produced by the convection currents of Ni and Fe in the outer core, but why should the movement of Fe and Ni produce a magnetic field? Fe and Ni form a metallic compound, made ...
Antozoa's user avatar
  • 29
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Wind direction statistics

I evaluate the performance of the model through the computation of statistical parameter such as bias, R, IOA and other. (i compare it with in situ measurements) However, wind direction (range 0 to ...
Dimitris Tsiaousidis's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
80 views

How much water does the Earth contain?

I am curious about how various estimates can divert. The first picture is taken from a recent publication of VisualCapitalist https://www.visualcapitalist.com/sp/hf01-visualizing-all-of-the-worlds-...
Jimmy Bionic's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Since when are there global air temperature measurements?

I keep reading that global air temperature has been recorded since 1880, but considering that it wasn't until 1911 that Amundsen became the first person to reach the South Pole, it cannot be assumed ...
Weiss's user avatar
  • 1,989
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Rough empirical formula for average temperature and pressure

Is there a rough empirical formula that approximates local average annual air temperature and pressure from geographical latitude, altitude and distance from ocean shore?
Мікалас Кaрыбутоў's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
80 views

Does carbon dioxide naturally freeze on Earth?

The coldest temperature ever measured at Vostok Station is -89.2 °C, well below the sea-level sublimation point of carbon dioxide at -78.5 °C. However, Vostok Station is well above sea level (3488 m)....
Mark's user avatar
  • 1,261
1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Do tropical cyclones impact climate?

Do tropical cyclones (TCs) have a global impact on climate? Maybe in terms of their impact on air-sea heat or gas fluxes? For example cooling the surface ocean, or enhancing CO2 fluxes? The motivation ...
ouranos's user avatar
  • 637
7 votes
0 answers
83 views

Why does the wake of boats leave a long lasting print on the sea surface?

A picture is better than a long explanation. The boat is long gone but its wake is visible for a very long time and forms a pattern looking like a trail on the sea surface. The two lines are not even ...
Shaktyai's user avatar
  • 171
4 votes
1 answer
60 views

Unexplained Jump in NOAA Climatological Data Post-2001

Earth Science community, I've encountered a puzzling issue with a dataset from NOAA's Local Climatological Data Airports Database (which can be accessed here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/local-...
code_error's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
21 views

Can frictional force be un-aligned with wind direction?

There is a well known solution to Navier-Stokes equations for atmospheric boundary layer according to Ekman (see for instance PalArya's book "Introduction to Micrometeorology" or Holton's &...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

How would I be able to store Hydrombobomkulite?

It dehydrates rapidly (hours) to mbobomkulite. So how would I be able to store it?
Lalith_Aditya's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
23 views

How does coastal fog form on the Chilean coast?

When traveling through the northern parts of Chile (La Serena, Antofagasta) during November and December, I noticed a thin layer of coastal fog very close to the coastline. Since this fog was present ...
mu88's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
49 views

Examining thermohaline circulation first with just temperature differences

This is a set of differential equations originally produced by Stommel (1961) has been simplified in this source (https://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/earth_modeling/...
AAAA's user avatar
  • 85
1 vote
0 answers
55 views

Why aren't dust devils extremely unstable?

Based on my intuition, I would expect a dust devil to rapidly entrain slow-moving air and stop spinning. My logic goes something like this: The dust devil is made of air that is warmer than the ...
Harrychink's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
40 views

If salinity affects density more than temperature, why is there a surface current in the N. Atlantic by equatorial regions where the water is saltier?

I am looking at Stommel's Two-Box model of ocean circulation. I get that deep water formation occurs in the polar regions due to cooling of the water and sinking to the bottom. However, just looking ...
AAAA's user avatar
  • 85
2 votes
1 answer
64 views

How to define sea areas

I want to define different study areas and want to do this here, for example, using the Nordic Seas. According to the definition, this area lies north of Iceland and south of Svalbard. However, are ...
Weiss's user avatar
  • 1,989
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

How can a tidal height be lower than 'Chart Datum'/'LAT' e.g 'Lowest Astronomical Tide'?

We just had a very low low tide in the UK, an equinoctial tide on the 12th of March that was calculated as -0.13m above chart datum, i.e 13cm below the 'Lowest Astronomical Tide'. Check here for tidal ...
Captainpadlock's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
68 views

2023-2024 El Nino Season 5th Strongest on Record Meaning

I was reading the Press Release of World Meteorological Organization press release that was dated March 5, 2024 and I was curious on what they meant by the sentence "The 2023-24 El Niño season ...
theic_ocean's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
22 views

How to Calculate Indoors Feels Like Temperature for All Seasons?

I want to calculate "feels like" temperature indoors, with no sunlight or wind. But I don't know which method to use or if I should combine methods. Below I've given some research results I ...
CaveScientist's user avatar

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