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1 vote
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10 views

How does the partial pressure of oxygen relate to its concentration in water?

I've read that the partial pressure of oxygen in water will be the same as the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere, but that the saturation of oxygen in water is dependent on factors like ...
  • 213
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Why does the salt in the sea water does not get dissolves completely

I was thinking about this topic like why salt in the ocean or sea water does not get dissolved in it Btw I wanna know the process too.
3 votes
0 answers
25 views

What are (meteorolgical) land depressions?

Reading the Wikipedia page for some North Indian Cyclone Seasons I've come across multiple systems called "land depressions". (written as Land [number]) Example (Land 01 2019): I'm not ...
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

The depth of natural gas fields

How is it possible that gas is stored kilometers deep?
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1 vote
0 answers
21 views

Where Do I FInd IPCC RCP Global Mean Temperature Predictions?

We have written a free textbook at (http://climate-change.world). Its main focus is on the social science side of changing emissions. We are not atmospheric scientists, so all we want to do is to ...
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
16 views

How do housing developments affect the soil of the surroundings? Are the minerals/molecules in cement available to plants? Or is the soil too basic?

Calcium carbonate in cement can make the soil more alkaline but does that make large housing developments have a significant or negligible affect on availability of nutrients? Does it cause nutrients ...
3 votes
2 answers
310 views

What are these features on Eldon Hill?

Eldon Hill is a limestone hill in Derbyshire, England. It has a large quarry on it's NW side and a natural pothole just to the south of it's peak. It also has the remains of lead mines scattered ...
  • 131
2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Why are there no tholins in the inner solar system?

There’s plenty of carbon dioxide and radiation throughout the solar system, why is it a phenomena only associated with the outer planets?
5 votes
0 answers
79 views

Why does Hurricane Ian show a long tail off to the North-East on doppler radar?

I was looking at the radar on the Weather Channel website and I noticed something that I don't think I've ever seen before. Screen shot from 11:30 AM EST 9/29 Hurricane/Tropical Storm Ian can be seen ...
  • 151
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

(Why) is the thermohaline circulation not affected by the coriolis effect?

Why doesn't (e.g.) the equatorward North Atlantic Deep Water bend more to the west? Is it maybe because the water tends to move relatively slowly and the magnitude of the Coriolis effect depends on ...
  • 41
4 votes
1 answer
72 views

Do the large forests remove CO2 from the atmosphere?

Thomas L. Friedman, the New York Times columnist, wrote yesterday: These intact forests — from those in the Amazon and Congo River basins to ones in Canada, Russia and Ecuador — are the world’s life-...
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

Why do east Pacific cyclones/hurricanes die out?

In the Atlantic basin, tropical cyclones start in the east and move west until they either reach land or move north into cooler waters. Based on this map of historic paths, there is a lot of ...
1 vote
2 answers
59 views

Measure of daylight brightness

I am looking for a meteorological measure of daylight brightness/luminosity. I can only find measures that are defined by the number of hours of sunlight during a day, but is there a measure that also ...
  • 111
5 votes
1 answer
57 views

Can a planet have both magma volcanoes and cryovolcanos?

I know that the Jovian ice moons have been speculated to have cryovolcanos. I was thinking of the ice planet of Hoth from Star Wars and in one of the video games; it has regular volcanic activity. ...
  • 53
3 votes
1 answer
27 views

Where may I find spreadsheet data on the spectral density of daylight at various times throughout the day from morning to evening?

I want to know the precise spectra density of light we humans (and plants) are exposed to at various times throughout the day from morning to evening. I'm searching for spectral density graphs/...
2 votes
1 answer
54 views

Can you see the main island of Taiwan from China?

Taiwan's main island is about 100 km from China. Is it possible to see it if you are at a scenic viewing spot in China on a clear day? This image, from a Reuters article, shows people on Pingtan ...
  • 121
4 votes
2 answers
650 views

How did they know that there was a "desert tsunami" in a Death Valley cave after a 7.6 magnitude earthquake near the southwest of Mexico?

Phys.org's story from September 23, 2022 entitled Mexico earthquake triggers 'desert tsunami' 1,500 miles away in Death Valley cave includes the following: About five minutes after the 7.6 magnitude ...
  • 7,108
4 votes
0 answers
29 views

Regular-ish chipings in slate - weird weathering, hewn or a fossil?

When hiking in the Moselvalley (on the Calmont, to be precise) I found a slightly rhomboid piece of slate measuring about 10 by 11 cm, with a thickness of ca. 2 to 4 cm. As can be seen in the first ...
  • 826
3 votes
0 answers
32 views

Why does the sandstone in Yehliu and other scenic coastal northern Taiwan look like vanilla fudge swirl ice cream?

I had the photos below handy from a recent trip, but in other areas of northern taiwan you can see very long, thin sheets of this dark, rust-like "chocolate swirl" separating very large, ...
  • 7,108
6 votes
2 answers
379 views

An approximate, piecewise continuous analytical model for Earth's radial density profile useful for numerical integration?

An intriguing question in Space SE Optimal depth for underground flyby? asks about a theoretical spacecraft trajectory for a "slingshot maneuver" also known as a gravitational assist or &...
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-3 votes
0 answers
22 views

What is the carbon emission breakdown of the G20?

I have recently read that the G20 are responsible for 70% of global carbon emissions. Is there a breakdown listing how much by which nation?
3 votes
1 answer
63 views

What would be the effect of a geostationary moon?

What kinds of differences from our Earth would we see with a moon in a geostationary orbit over the equator? Assuming the gravitational pull is roughly the same as it is with ours (my back of the ...
  • 131
0 votes
1 answer
25 views

How to convert Carbon stored in surface sediments (kg/m2) to percent?

I need to convert organic carbon provided in kg C/m2 to percent. Any help would be appreciated.
1 vote
1 answer
41 views

Gulf stream depth and Ekman's theory

The Gulf Stream is said to be Largely driven by wind stress, and Up to 1000 m deep. At the same time, I am reading that the effect of the wind usually does not reach deeper than 100 m in Ekman ...
  • 41
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Desalination of Pacific Ocean water for California

Could it be feasible to have a tunnel using gravity to move water underground into central California, where a nuclear power plant can use the water to create electricity and desalinate it at the same ...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Which chemicals are most responsible for the blue sky?

Earth's atmosphere is especially good at refracting blue light, which makes the sky blue. Which gas or gasses is/are responsible for this? If some gasses in the atmosphere do not refract blue light, ...
3 votes
0 answers
29 views

Did the Vredefort Crater fill in soon after impact?

The Vredefort Crater is said to have been 40km deep and 100km wide. But what I'm curious about, is how long it retained that shape. Would magma have immediately leaked into it and filled it, for ...
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Could this be a tooth or a fossil, looks like a molar [closed]

Found at shore off Genoa, Italy. My kids really think it’s a molar of some kind..
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2 votes
1 answer
49 views

What exactly does point-of-no-return for carbon emissions mean?

I think I have heard that if the carbon emission raises a small amount above the current, it would be "point of no return". I heard it a long time ago, so I just searched Google and the top ...
3 votes
1 answer
59 views

What would eventually happen to untrapped petroleum?

The Stack Exchange question wondering how much of the petroleum ever formed made it into reservoir rocks got me pondering what becomes of the organic material that isn't trapped in reservoir rock. I ...
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

How much energy holds the full visible light spectrum? same to heat absorbed by back color? [migrated]

I would love to know how much energy a black body absorbs from the visible light. In the following site we can calculate the eV of a given wavelength, but if I'd like to know the sum of eV for the ...
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
34 views

Create my own timeline by collating data from different research

I'm researching various paleo-events (climate, geomorphology, etc) from different articles. I would in turn like to collate the findings into one comprehensive timeline. Example: I have articles ...
0 votes
0 answers
6 views

Estimation of velocity of the wave from seismic trace

How can seismologists estimate velocity (on the different layers) of the wave propogated through the earth , only from given seismic trace(s) ?
2 votes
1 answer
50 views

How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry?

How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry? If you dig deeper, that small, and fixed, amount of water is just going to go lower, isn't it? That just what my layman's logic says, at least. ...
0 votes
1 answer
38 views

How do melting glaciers dry rivers?

How do melting glaciers dry rivers? Unless there's less precipitation during winter, I don't see how it affects the volume of water of the rivers that glaciers feed into. If it's cold, water ...
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Hydrologic Mass Balance

Old MacDonald had a farm. And on that farm, he had a pond. Old MacDonald (OMD) liked spending a lot of time fishing in his pond. One day a friend told him that the fish will grow twice as big if the ...
1 vote
0 answers
17 views

How has relative humidity changed due to climate change and in which regions?

It is widely known that air temperature is increasing but relative humidity is decreasing in many regions. I wonder why that is, because at higher temperatures more water should evaporate? Does the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Map showing the change in precipitation intensity

Hi I need a map for the North American region that shows the change in rainfall intensity. Unfortunately, I can only find maps like this map Unfortunately, these are not detailed to use.
  • 1,354
3 votes
1 answer
215 views

How to convert specific humidity ERA5 in kg/kg to g/kg or mm/day?

The specific humidity of ERA5 data is kg/kg, but some articles work with this variable in g/kg. How can I convert this? Or to compare with precipitation, evaporation, and other variables, how to ...
  • 33
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

Factors influencing existence of groundwater

I'm going to use RS/GIS techniques and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify potential groundwater zones , but first I need to identify all factors influencing the existence of groundwater. ...
  • 21
1 vote
2 answers
50 views

In geostrophic wind, what is the mechanism behind the tendency of the coriolis effect/force and the pressure gradient force to balance each other out?

I understand that it is possible for the coriolis effect and the pressure gradient force (PGF) to cancel each other out, but it appears to be a tendency (rather than just a possibility). What is the ...
  • 41
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Help me find a certain type of crystallographic notation

I was looking through wikipedia a few weeks ago while half asleep, reading articles about rocks and their chemical compositions. I then came across a certain crystallographic notation which I had not ...
1 vote
0 answers
10 views

Altitudinal gradient in air density at poles

In the descriptions of polar cells, it is usually described as cold and dense air sinks at poles. But I don't understand why air at high altitude is denser than low altitude at poles. The polar cells ...
  • 115
2 votes
1 answer
69 views

What kind of fossil or creature is this from? Found in the ocean

I found this in the waters of the Dominican Republic -- any idea of what it belongs to/how old it might be? I thought it might be a tooth, but I tried matching to existing marine life in the area but ...
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1 vote
1 answer
10 views

Irrigating from multiple reservoirs in SWAT+

I am applying SWAT+ in an area with multiple reservoirs used for irrigation. I also have a lot of HRUs representing the various crop types in the catchment. The problem is that SWAT+ assigns one ...
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
45 views

Is flooding an atmospheric or a geological hazard?

Is flooding an atmospheric or a geological hazard? From my understanding you would define the above terms as: Atmospheric hazards - hazards that are caused or effect weather or climate. For example ...
0 votes
0 answers
9 views

Developing or implementing manual/advanced irrigation in SWAT+

The following error about HRU occurred when I was trying to implement manual (advanced) irrigation operation. An additional message advises that I contact developers directly when you want to create ...
  • 21
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Updating plant/crop database

I have been trying to update the QSWAT+ crop database to include new crops. However it seems the model refuses to read a look-up table with new crops leaving me unable to represent all the various ...
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Forest Land Remaining Forest Land, Emissions Algorithm

I'm trying to understand how CO2 emissions are calculated in the Land Use category "Forest Land Remaining Forest Land". There are several subcategories, the one with the biggest impact seems ...
  • 1
2 votes
0 answers
43 views

How is sea level rise due to a glacier melting calculated?

There's news going around (e.g. link) that the melting of the Thwaites glacier may cause sea levels to rise by 10 feet. Is that true and not exaggerated? How is the calculation made? They said the ...

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