# All Questions

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32 views

### How are boundary conditions considered in PDEs?

I'm new to numerical modeling and trying to figure out how things work inside business codes. Consider a 1D domain divided into small cells of width dx and at the East and West a Neumann conditions ...
27 views

### Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
28 views

### What crops benefit the most from AgTech and particularly soil monitoring?

I am trying to understand the benefits of AgTech for different crops, and particularly IoT-based solutions like soil sensors (humidity, temperature, NPK). What are the crops that are benefitting the ...
28 views

### Why is the delta part of Jezero crater higher than the surroundings?

In images of Jezero crater on Mars, it looks like the delta fan is higher than the surrounding crater floor. This indeed seems to be the case with closer-up images from the Perseverance rover taken ...
21 views

### Electric phenomenon when tornado funnel disappears?

A video of a recent tornado in Germany shows two points of glowing light appear at the end of the lifetime of a tornado, when the funnel is already almost entirely retracted. Here is a video link. The ...
20 views

### How accurate are paleomagnetic orientation measurements?

I am curious what the modern accuracy for paleomagnetic azimuthal orientation measurements are. Let's say for a magnetite grain, is the orientation of the magnetic moment for a single crystal resolved ...
85 views

### Would home heat pumps provide large benefits against climate change?

Some facts I have learnt The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was developed to allow comparisons of the global warming impacts of different gases. Specifically, it is a measure of how much energy the ...
45 views

### Software for spatial interpolation of temperature and relative humidity data from weather stations

I'm working with time series of weather data (specifically, min/max daily temperatures and relative humidity) recorded from weather stations over an area of about 200,000 km2. I would be interested in ...
43 views

### Do I have gems in my yard [closed]

I have a question about my soil: the top soil has a purplish colour that reflects in the light. I have a borehole in my yard and my grandmother found a beautiful type of gem stone in the area of my ...
127 views

### How can smartphones help geologists in the field?

Smartphones have incorporated many sensors and some of them can be helpful for a geologist in the field: They have GPS, so it is possible to register your route in a Google Maps map. I find this may ...
22 views

### About creating some waste market like power electrical market [closed]

I am working in one waste management project by cyberspace, which I have described here. So I am trying to create one advertisement site for creating fast connections between a seller of trash and ...
92 views

### How many people could be fed in this world? [closed]

I have heard in the radio in one discussion between an executor and economist that: The world of a humans have technology with the ability to feed 200 billion of its kind but the existence of 2 ...
60 views

### How to calculate sea level pressure from geopotential height?

For this, I am using python to plot and manipulate the data. I am using reanalysis data in a netcdf format for this problem. The data includes geopotential, for which I estimated the geopotential ...
56 views

### What is grib2 telling me?

I am having trouble interpreting the output of wgrib2. I was expecting this command to produce a set of four measurements: one for each corner of a box at the specified pressure level. Instead I got ...
58 views

### Recommend books on Lat Long

I am a lyaman of Geography, and working on a project to calcuate x,y (from a rectangle coordinate system) to Lat,Long I searched on the net, and fell complete lost in the big world of geometry, ...
72 views

### Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
32 views

### Are there specific layers in the subsurface that come before gas or oil?

Currently, I've started working on a geophysics project. More specifically, I'm trying to find gas and oil reservoirs in SEGY files using deep learning. I've been reading about seismic reflection ...
10k views

### Why is the Arctic melting, but the Antarctic doing great?

Why is the Arctic melting, but the Antarctic doing great? That's what the latest IPCC report says (p. 2-192 of the Physical Science Basis provides a time series), but it says nothing, unless I missed ...
49 views

### What is the difference between surface specific humidity and surface relative humidity?

What is the difference between surface specific humidity and surface relative humidity (it's wetter and dryer respectively)? The trends, according to the latest IPCC report, are opposite for the two, ...
26 views

### Source for USGS (probably not) seismic map of La Habra, California (Publication Date April 15, 1998)

I'm trying to find to original source (especially high quality version) of this conservation seismic map. I know that it probably came from USGS (or not) but looks like it out of print? I tried to ...
30 views

### How to calculate mean annual maximum temperatures from monthly temperature values?

Apologies, this is a simple question. But I just want to make sure I am calculating the mean, annual maximum temperatures correctly. I have monthly temperature data from 1980 - 2019. In order to get ...
31 views

### What are the boundary conditions for Navier's Equations of motion in seismic?

Navier's equations of motion in seismic have 3 solutions, according to how it is resolved (boundary conditions): for Vp (compression waves) for Vs (shear waves) for Vr (Rayleigh waves) I know the ...
47 views

### How was the Mozambique Belt formed

I'm looking for some of the most comprehensive or significant articles on the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. If anyone can recommend some specific papers regarding the Geological history of the belt ...
98 views

I posted this before on physics stack exchange, but it was deemed off topic, which is understandable, so I hope it won't be here. Recently, I stumbled upon an article by an individual named A.M. ...
74 views

### What would be the effects of a large forest fire on soil in other places?

Say a large forest fire took place. As I understand it, the smoke and ash would ride the wind and could be a health hazard even to people that are quite far away. My question is will it damage the ...
39 views

### Nobel prize Manabe's 1967 code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model

Does someone know where to find a (hopefully modern) version of the numerical code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model, the one Syukuro Manabe & Richard T. Wetherald used in ...
57 views

### Tectonic plates terminology

I have a very basic doubt regarding what the tectonic plates mean. In Wiki article Subduction is defined as: Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere is recycled into the ...
33 views

### What happens if a cyclone can reach the warm waters of the Persian Gulf?

Historically cyclones were very very rare along the southern coast of Iran, maybe one in a century. But in recent years two cyclones hit Iran and northern Oman: Cyclone Gonu in 2007 and recently ...
42 views

### What Pa level should I use when looking at Relative Humidity data from CMIP6 models?

I have downloaded a number of future simulations for a group of GCMs from CMIP6 for the variable Relative Humidity (hur). I chose the 100000pa level to view the RH data in panoply for the EC-Earth ...
52 views

### When did the proto-Himalayas become non-volcanic?

In the normal course of events, when continents move toward each other, at least one coast will be associated with a subduction zone and corresponding volcanic activity. When the Indian subcontinent ...
32 views

### How to calculate relative humidity with temperature and dew point? [duplicate]

I got this formula for calculating- 100x(EXP.((17.625x32)/(243.04+32)/EXP.((17.625x54)/(243.04+54)))=? The answer should be 43, but I Keep getting 65. Please, can anyone calculate this correctly? ...
58 views

### What methods/apparatus are used to model the early Earth? What do we know of their accuracy?

A friend of mine asked our teacher but the class was over and in online mode, I can't ask my teacher until the next lecture. It sparked my curiosity, I know we use carbon dating for finding the age of ...
36 views

### Staggered Grid finite difference implementation for modelling the elastic wave equation in 2D?

I am attempting to implement FD in 2D with a staggered grid scheme as per (Virieux 1986). I am having difficulties going from the numerical analysis formulas to the code for this particular scheme. As ...
49 views

### Can Hydrocarbons be beneficial? [duplicate]

Do these “fossil fuels” underground help maintain homeostasis in microbial ecosystem or aid in the growth of flora etc? Or are these substances: coal, animal remains and natural gas detrimental even ...
121 views

### Is anthropogenic global warming unavoidable under modern civilisation? [closed]

Which are the reasons to believe that the climate crisis can be solved within our type of civilisation, that is, without putting in jeopardy the important advances of humanity that have been achieved ...
29 views

### Why is Melanterite white or colorless?

I've read that melanterite (FeSO4*7H2O) is colorless or white and gets to be green to blue with increase in Cu2+ impurities. But from my chemistry experience I know that iron sulfate is green when in ...
59 views

### What is the importance of hydrocarbons to the natural environment?

I have not been able to find any scholarly resources citing the impact of hydrocarbons in stasis underground. Hydrocarbons not being used for as a source of energy have very few noted needs for the ...
85 views

### How far into the past would you have to go before you couldn't breathe the atmosphere?

Not counting temporary events, like mass extinctions.
720 views

### Why can't we increase cloud coverage of the Earth to reduce mean temperature by flooding basins to increase evaporation?

There are millions of square kilometers of below sea level dry land, mostly in desert areas. Reducing the mean temperature of the earth by 2 °C requires increasing cloud cover of stratus clouds by ...
69 views

### How common are volcanic-induced rain events?

Last year I did an online summer course on remote sensing of volcanoes held by the University of Hawaii at Hilo. During the course, we had a presentation about the monitoring campaign during the 2018 ...
66 views

### Where to find graphite rocks? [closed]

Where to find graphite rocks? I made researches in my city beach but I don't know where to find them.
52 views

### Boundary between areas having frequent versus infrequent forest fires

In some parts of North America, such as California, the climax ecosystem has frequent forest fires -- that is, relatively dry forest that in absence of human intervention would burn perhaps every ...
47 views

### Why do electrons drift Eastwards in the Van Allen belts?

Context The image below shows that one of the three particle movement patterns of radiation particles that are captured in the Van Allen belts is a longitudinal drift motion: However, I am ...
17 views

### List of estuary/mouth size for European rivers

I am looking for a list that contains either the size of estuaries or river mouths of European rivers. Is there such a list available somewhere? I have been looking for a while but only found lists ...
21 views

### "Down wash" as a source for mineral particles in the soil

In a previous IGCSE examination paper$^1$, the following question was asked and answer provided: State one source of mineral particles in soil. Marking Scheme: Accept any one of: rock; down wash; ...
43 views

### Does the magnitude of gravity stay the same at all points along the geoid [closed]

And how does this differ from the gravitational potential along the geoid (which is equal).
76 views

### How serious is the issue of vast quantities of methane release from an ice-free Arctic?

A bunch of climate scientists claim that humans will go extinct by 2026, when humanity crosses the major tipping point known as "Arctic Blue Ocean Event (BOE)". According to the climate ...
106 views

### What meteorological data is needed for air quality machine learning models?

Are there any studies that discuss what meteorological data I should look at if I am creating an air quality model with machine learning? That is, what should I extract from NCEI or ERA5 first if I ...