The part of the earth tilted towards the sun is warmer. For example, in the Northern hemisphere, the earth is tilted towards the sun in the months around June and tilted away from it in the months around December.
- This has the effect of increasing the exposure of the earth to the sun for the latitudes tilted towards the sun.
- Also, the more tropical the latitude, the more energy is received per unit area.
These two ideas are illustrated by the figure below:
There are other effects, too...
- If the sun's energy must pass through more atmosphere, there is greater opportunity for it to scatter into space before reaching the earth
- When the sun strikes the earth, if it strikes it obliquely there is greater chance for the light to be reflected rather than absorbed.
- Finally, whether the sun strikes water or land or ice has an effect, because each has a different degree of absorption and reflectivity.
In total there seem to be 5 different major factors in how much energy is absorbed by the earth from the sun.
My question is what is the relative importance of each of these factors? Is there a set of equations or measurements that describe the total energy received by the sun in terms of these 5 different factors?