There are a lot of papers on the web but they don't explain the concepts, they just mention them, taking for granted that the reader knows the concepts. I mean piggyback basin, forearc, back arc, intracratonic, intramontane, etc.
In general, a good answer to "where can I learn the basic concepts of X" is "a textbook on X". For sedimentary concepts, you might try Nichols (2009), for instance. Academic papers are a publication vehicle for new research, so you'll seldom find much introductory material in them.
For terms like "intracratonic" and "intramontane", you might also find it useful to learn some common Greek and Latin prefixes and suffixes. If you look for "intra" in a list like this one, you'll find that it's Latin for "within", and you might be able to guess that "intracratonic" refers to something occurring within a craton.
If you just want to look up terms as you go, and you're happy with brief definitions, a specialist dictionary might also be helpful. For Earth Sciences, Allaby (2008) is a good concise dictionary, though it might be a little too concise if you're a beginner.
Allaby, M. ed., 2008. A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 3rd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nichols, G., 2009. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 2nd ed., Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.