I am considering a MS in Geoscience but am curious with the naming conventions associated within the fields of geology. Is Geoscience similar, or interchangeable with geology? Yes, I would be new to the field. I would like to couple my aviation (meteorology, etc.) schooling with a science-rich program. Everyone appears to be professionals on here and would likely know the answer.
Is Geoscience similar, or interchangeable with geology?
Geology is, strictly speaking, a subset of the wider field of geosciences. However, this probably doesn't mean much when people look at the name of your degree or the name of the department of school that awarded your degree. As farrenthorpe said in the comments, what's important is what you do in your research.
Common names for degrees (or departments) could be geoscience, geology, earth science (like the place when I am at the moment), earth and marine science, geological and environmental science (like the place where I did my BSc and MSc at). Doesn't matter. You are probably looking for something in the general field of atmospheric sciences, and each of variations above may or may not include it. Find schools that you're interested in and check each case on its own.