Love & Brownlee (1991) put together numerical models for the experiences of micrometeorites entering the atmosphere. They say:
The peak temperatures experienced by submillimeter micrometeoroids rarely exceed 1700°C. Maximum temperature and mass loss rate generally occur at altitudes between 85 and 90 km during ∼1 sec of peak heating. A typical melted particle spends ∼2 sec at temperatures above the melting point.
Flynn (1989) discusses interplanetary dust, with figures for peak temperatures given in the abstract.
But I think that what you really want is Sears (1975), Temperature gradients in meteorites produced by atmospheric passage:
Temperatures in the order of 200°C have usually penetrated no further than 5-10mm, which is consistent with a luminous flight time of the order of 10s.
Using the geologists' rule of thumb for timescales of cooling (I believe $\tau^2 = \ell/\kappa$, where $\tau$ is the timescale, $\ell$ is the thickness of the cooling body, and $\kappa$ is the thermal conductivity - though it's a while since I've had to do this so I may be misremembering...), the information above about the height above the surface at which peak temperature is commonly reached, and an estimate of particle velocity, you can probably back-of-envelope a temperature for a meteorite on impact!