I have been busy learning the components of various minerals for upcoming test....is there any way to predict the components or properties of a mineral just by knowing it's name? Eg: albite,augite, labradorite,biotite,anorthite
It depends, most of the mineral names we use are derived from old Greek names that were basically comments on the appearance or behaviour of the materials so Galena means literally Lead Ore, which it is, Cassiterite is an ancient word for tin, which it is still be main ore of up to the modern day. On the other hand Pyrite means on fire due to its ancient use as a spark source and Hematite simply means blood and is a comment on the colour of certain European deposits. So if you brush up on your Greek you can tell some things about some minerals but others will remain quite opaque.
No. The names are all over the place. Some are historic. Some are named after locations. Others are named after people. And although they might be standardised, the original words are often from different languages.
Sometimes the names do describe properties - graphite (used for writing), olivine (usually an olive colour), magnetite (is magnetic), etc.