Lightning produced NO$_{x}$ (emitted as NO but quickly converted to NO$_{2}$) can be one of the major sources of atmospheric NO$_{x}$ in the tropics [1]. Estimates of emissions per flash range from 10 - 600 moles NO per flash [2]. I have 2 questions about this phenomenon.

1) What is the exact location where the lightning NO is emitted? Is it in the cloud? Is it over the whole range of the lightning strike? Is there a difference in location between the IC (intra-cloud) and CG (cloud-to-ground) flashes [3]?


2) What percentage of the total 2 to 20 Tg N yr$^{-1}$ actually ends up in the atmospheric boundary layer where it can be harmful as air pollutant or precursor of surface ozone?


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