Paleontologist Michael J. Benton of the University of Bristol wrote:
“The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5–6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1–3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt stepwise from low to high trophic levels through the Early to Middle Triassic, and a stable, complex ecosystem did not re-emerge until the beginning of the Middle Triassic, 8–9 Myr after the crisis” 1.
According to the latest reports, marine ecosystems achieved a complete recovery at 244.5 ± 1 million years ago, and recovery of terrestrial ecosystems is contemporaneous or later than marine ecosystems 2.
Can someone point to any research on recovery of the terrestrial ecosystems after the Permian extinction?
1:Chen, Z. Q., Benton, M. J. “The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction,” Nature Geoscience, Volume 5, 2012
2: Li, M. et al, “Astrochronology of the Anisian stage (Middle Triassic) at the Guandao reference section, South China,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 482, 2018; Luo, M. et al, “Early Middle Triassic trace fossils from the Luoping Biota, southwestern China: Evidence of recovery from mass extinction,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 515, 2019