I guess the key is to know gases concentration, which should be done finally with a mass spectrometer if I am not wrong.

But how does the complete process work, from drilling to the final paleoclimatological variables as output?

What devices are used at the different steps and what calculations are involved?

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    $\begingroup$ I think your question is a little too broad. There is a lot of material online describing the process (see this for instance icecores.org/about-ice-cores). $\endgroup$ – Nemesi Mar 29 at 16:47

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