Is "Chasm One" an "official" name for the feature?
No. This is only an informal name used to designate a rift structure (fracture) in the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. For example, another rift structure, which trends perpendicular to "Chasm 1," was informally named the "Halloween Crack" because it was first detected on October 31, 2016.
How was the term coined?
It is one of two rift structures that are arbitrarily and sequentially numbered, "Chasm 1" and "Chasm 2", starting from the seaward edge of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica inland along the ice shelf as shown in Figures 1 and 2 0f King et a. (2017).
Will there be a new Chasm One someday, or will the name be retired after this one splits?
The name will likely be retired because having multiple "Chasm 1"s in the same ice shelf will be too confusing. Most likely as new rift structures from the sequential naming of them, e.g. "Chasm 3," "Chasm 4," and so forth would continue.
The papers are:
de Rydt, Jan, Gudmundsson, Hilmar, Nagler, Thomas, Wuite, Jan and King, Edward (2018) Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 12 (2). pp. 505-520. ISSN 1994-0424 http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-505-2018
de Rydt, J., Gudmundsson, G. H., Nagler, T., and Wuite, J.: Calving cycle of the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica, driven by changes in ice-shelf geometry, The Cryosphere Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-46, in review, 2019 https://www.the-cryosphere-discuss.net/tc-2019-46/
King, E. C., De Rydt, J., and Gudmundsson, G. H.: The internal structure of the Brunt Ice Shelf from ice-penetrating radar analysis and implications for ice shelf fracture, The Cryosphere, 12, 3361-3372, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-3361-2018, 2018. https://www.the-cryosphere.net/12/3361/2018/
Hodgson, Dominic A., Jordan, Tom A., de Rydt, Jan, Fretwell, Peter T., Seddon, Samuel A., Becker, David, Hogan, Kelly A., Smith, Andrew M. and Vaughan, David G. (2019) Past and future dynamics of the Brunt Ice Shelf from seabed bathymetry and ice shelf geometry. The Cryosphere, 13. pp. 545-556. ISSN 1994-0440 http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/tc-2018-206