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I was wondering about the physics of color, and now am interested in finding out if there are any resources (databases, text files, html tables, or pdf listings) of minerals and their associated colors or (ideally) color wavelength spectrum.

For example, amethyst might have a white, silver, and purple color spectrum. Onyx might have a grey, blue, or black color spectrum. Granite another spectrum. Wondering (a) if any of this information is captured in any form on the web (such as 1 journal article per mineral/rock type), and (b) if it is aggregated into a database, text file, table, or other sort of list which includes lots of types, so it would say the wavelength of visible light that it emits, or some ranges of it, or even a hex color range.

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This type of information is made available through the USGS Spectroscopy Lab.

There is a researchable database of their current spectral library with the appropriate information for each mineral signature (formula, sample_id, type and more). Here is an example of the signature for Hematite:

splib07a Hematite

Further, there is an up to date publication accompanying the database titled USGS Spectral Library Version 7, available here.

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Another online database to try is this one, which lists minerals for various colors

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