I'm a PhD student studying the (current) climate of the Earth. I'm also quite interested in the history of planet Earth, although I have little academic background in that area. Is there a good textbook on the history of the planet, ideally one that has some focus on the climate?
Although not exactly a textbook, I would highly recommend you to read Marcia Bjornerud's Timefulness (2018). It goes through all of Earth's history, including the atmosphere. It's short and kind of poetic, but backed by solid science. Her previous book, Reading the Rocks, seems somewhat similar (it's subtitle is The Autobiography of the Earth), but I did not read it. It was also praised at the time, so it might be worth reading even if it lacks the more recent discoveries (it's from 2005).