If you consider what climate is -- the typical range of temperatures, precipitation, and other meteorological conditions that a region experiences -- and the fact that both nature and human society and civilization have adapted to the regional climates across the globe, then you can see that any substantial and relatively rapid change is likely to have what we would perceive as negative effects.
This is just a broad illustration, but for example, there's a vast swath of the north hemisphere suitable for growing wheat because of a combination of soil quality, available precipitation, and growing degree days (crop heat units). Farms, cities, roads, and other infrastructure have been built around this cropland for generations to take optimal advantage of existing conditions and reduce costs for delivering the wheat to market. More crop heat units can make a region more productive, but daily temperatures above 82 degrees will start stressing and killing the plants. Even if land closer to the poles becomes more farmable -- no guarantee -- simply changing what can be brown at a given latitude can reduce a nation's ability to feed itself.
There are other ways in which human civilization has adapted to current regional conditions: Communities rely on air conditioning in the summer and/or heating in the winter to make regions tolerable. Harbors and coastal communities are built to suit current sea levels. In general, increased temperatures will make warmer regions less tolerable and more expensive to live in (through cooling and similar costs) and more prone to deadly heat waves, while potentially making colder regions more tolerable and less expensive (through reduced heating costs). Similarly, dramatic cooling would also affect where everything grows, reduce growing degree days for growing plants, and making colder regions less tolerable and more costly.
While attempting to quantify the "Country-level social cost of carbon," a 2018 study in Nature Climate Change by Kate Ricke, et. al. assessed the net economic impact on individual countries and concluded that the costs are "unevenly distributed": "Countries that incur large fractions of the global cost consistently include India, China, Saudi Arabia and the United States."
Northern countries such as Russia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Poland actually receive a slight direct benefit from climate change through factors such as reduced heating costs.