Am new to this.
I was reading New Geopolitics of natural gas by Agnia and came across this paragraph :
because gas historically had been supplied primarily by land-based pipeline monopolies rather than by competing ship tankers moving in any direction across the seas, gas-importing countries have had to rely on a limited number of suppliers. As a result, until recently, many countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, have been 100 percent dependent on a single gas pipeline, a single gas-producing country, and even a single company, such as the Russian gas giant Gazprom. Meanwhile, gas-producing countries such as Russia have likewise been dependent on a fixed set of pipeline export routes and consumers. Then, too, with other states serving as transit territories for the pipelines carrying gas from producing to importing countries, these territorially driven gas trade relationships have impacted national, regional, and international politics.
Why are pipeline export routes considered fixed? Are they expensive? Does its erection damage the land in ways relevant to new routes or something?
At the same time, I also wondered why don't gas producers make their own shippers instead of being depend on transite states? Because of the benefits of specialisation? Are they the exception; were they simply fast enough.