"Consumption-based emissions reflect the consumption and lifestyle choices of a country’s citizens."
Via this article https://ourworldindata.org/consumption-based-co2 I see that Belgium's consumption-based CO2 emissions per capita in 2018 is still above the level of 1990.
I wonder why?
Why are Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Norway still above their CO2 consumption levels, while many other neighbouring countries such as the Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, Ireland, ... did manage to get their levels down?
Further more, I am wondering how they can correctly estimate the CO2 of all consumption? I believe this is not known for all brands/products?
P.S.: In 'Sources' we can read:
Consumption-based emissions are national or regional emissions which have been adjusted for trade (i.e. territorial/production emissions minus emissions embedded in exports, plus emissions embedded in imports). If a country's consumption-based emissions are higher than its production emissions it is a net importer of carbon dioxide.
The underlying source is an updated version of the paper by "Peters et al. (2011). Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008."
► (Updated to 2014) Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber, CL and Edenhofer, O 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 8903-8908: https://bg.copernicus.org/articles/9/3247/2012/bg-9-3247-2012.html
This updated data is available in the latest version of the Global Carbon Budget.
Our World in Data has calculated several additional metrics based on the following metrics:
► Energy consumption data from BP Statistical Review of World Energy: https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html
► Long-term GDP data from Maddison Project Database: https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project-database-2018