Looking for similar for another recent question, I stumbled across https://www.sparc-climate.org/data-centre/data-access/fisaps/ which lists quite a few options on HVRRD (high vertical resolution radiosonde data)
Looks like a lot to sift through, but if your project can work for past data over the US, I found that from ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ua/rrs-data/ I was able to download the files and extract them using their software, resulting in data every second, typically about 5-10 meters apart... here's a clipped view with a rough idea of the type of data it has (also has v-wnd):
Perhaps that fits your needs?
If not, and you can't find any useful data from the first link, maybe also try looking around https://madis-data.ncep.noaa.gov/madisPublic1/data/point/ ... there's things like ACARS (commercial aircraft sounding data), MADIS data (satellite), radio profilers, etc. Though less confident you'll find a resolution you want, never hurts to try.
But hopeful you'll find what you need with the HVRRD stuff!