This paper here goes into some detail about how Mars' experiences its own form of 'ice ages' on a quasi periodic basis driven by the wobbling of its axis. The main mechanism outlined is that the stability of water ice on the surface increases with increased obliquity. This is in contrast to Earth when at high obliquity there is increased polar summer insolation leading to metling. What is the difference?
On a more discussion based addition to the question, could factors such as ice albedo and other feedback loops play a similar role in Mars' ice ages that they do in Earth's ice ages?
I have also asked this at the Astronomy stack exchange here