Earth is a very special goldilocks planet which somehow maintains a useful thermal range for life.
In order to do this, it must have some function of absorbing and releasing energy. If it absorbed too much, it would get too hot. If it released too much, it would get too cold.
From what I can research, some of the major factors in keeping Earth from getting "too hot" are:
- the magnetic field diverting solar winds and charged particles (similar question, NASA's Cosmos): without these "the earth would fry"
- seemingly, this is the most important one for stability (??)
- our distance from the sun (which is also a "not too cold" factor")
- infrared emissions: basically molecules launching off photons. any photon emission would work, but infrared is the most common on human inhabitable planets (??)
The "not too cold" factors are:
- once again, our distance from the sun being amicable
- atmospheric absorption of greenhouse gasses (greenhouse effect)
- ?? that's it that I know of
Overall, it seems like things had to be just perfect to create a planet with a workable balance of magnetic fields, greenhouse gasses, and distance from the sun. But this is just my layman's understanding.
What other major vectors/inhibitors/regulators of energy transfer to/from Earth are there?