I hope that my question fits in this forum.
I am looking for empirical literature dedicated to pollution in the forest. So far, I have only found psychological literature that tries to find out what means can be used to make people litter less in the forest.
But I am looking for studies that try to find out how much garbage is in the forest, how this garbage is distributed and what this garbage is made of (plastic, metal, paper, ...). Unfortunately, so far I have not found anything about this. I hope that someone here can help me further.

Many thanks in advance!

enter image description here

  • $\begingroup$ Indeed. That is correct. But I'm looking for scientific studies that examine littering in an ordinary forest $\endgroup$
    – TobKel
    Commented Jul 28, 2021 at 11:10
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I'd argue that there's much different between different countries and forests. Can you narrow it down to a country? $\endgroup$
    – Erik
    Commented Jul 28, 2021 at 12:21
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Of course. I look at Germany in particular. But also international works would be very helpful for me. $\endgroup$
    – TobKel
    Commented Jul 28, 2021 at 13:40
  • $\begingroup$ Studies on specific wastes may be available but all types in one study- quite tough. $\endgroup$
    – Padmanabha
    Commented Jul 29, 2021 at 8:03
  • $\begingroup$ Studies on a specific type of waste would already be a great help. Could you name some? $\endgroup$
    – TobKel
    Commented Jul 29, 2021 at 8:17

1 Answer 1


So far, I thought there won't be any studies on the overall scenario of waste disposals. After searching in depth, I have found studies on illegal waste dumping sites in Polish forests. Hope these will be helpful.

Jakiel et al. (2018) assessed the spatiotemporal distribution of wastes in the Ojcow National Park, Poland. Number of dumping sites and volume of different types of wastes were determined through field observation. They categorized the dumping sites into very small, small, medium and large sized. It is a very comprehensive study.

Another study by Zablocki et al. (2011) identified forests and natural depressions as the most common places for illegal waste dumping. Quantitative measurements of waste volumes can be found in this paper. Kolanowski and wisiniewki (2012) found total volume of 50 m3 garbage in the forest area of Ostrów Mazowiecka community.


  1. Jakiel M., Bernatek-Jakiel, A., Gajda, A., Filiks, M. & Pufelska, M.(2018): Spatial and temporal distribution of illegal dumping sites in the nature protected area: the Ojców National Park, Poland, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2017.1412941

  2. Kolanowski, B. & Wisiniewski, J. (2012). Assessment of the size and position of wild dumps in the White Forest in the municipality of Ostrow Mazowiecka classified as a Natura 2000 [in Polish]. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, 2 (I), 99. Accessed from: https://agro.icm.edu.pl/agro/element/bwmeta1.element.agro-47c8e24c-3441-477d-9abc-261699a5b8b2

  3. Zablocki, Z., Podlasinska, J. & Kruczek, I.(2011) Characteristics of illegal waste dumping sites located within area of Kobylanka community [in Polish]. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis, Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria et Zootechnica. Vol.283 No.17 pp.41-50 https://www.cabdirect.org/globalhealth/abstract/20123068877

  4. Antczak, E., 2020. Regional Patterns in Dumping Sitesin Poland - Analysis in Context of the New "Sustainable" Waste Policy. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 29(2), pp.1037-1049. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/108484

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Great! Many thanks. This helps me a lot to get started! $\endgroup$
    – TobKel
    Commented Jul 31, 2021 at 8:05

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.