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Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am looking through papers and websites and cannot find something satisfying. Say that I have 10 different ensemble members calculating geopotential height over the globe at one time. How is the best way to quantify the ensemble spread from this? I have seen 1D formulas, but for gridded (lat/lon) variables how does this work? Do people take the average of the one variable over the globe at one time, and then calculate the spread from the ensemble mean? Or is the spread calculated gridpoint by gridpoint, and then averaged? Or is there an entirely better way to do this... or am I missing something?

Thanks in advance! If there's any reading material I'm missing out on please feel free to send it my way.

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