The answer is no, it could not have been. Period.
Just the one thing, fossil fuel usage, makes this so. Fossil fuels have not been replaced since their making over-to-around 450-400 million years ago. Yet when mankind began using them, even the "low-hanging fruit" was there, ready for the plucking. If a society in your time period had passed through a fossil fuel using stage, and they WOULD have, the low-hanging fruit would have been used, along with much, much more.
Yes, tectonic activity could have moved some not-then-low-hanging fruit to be so, but not on the scale we observed when plucking it ourselves. Nor would it replace the used materials.
No society would have gone from a few fireplaces straight to nuclear plants powering a world, nor geothermal ones or wind powered ones. And in further (logical) proof of that, how would those three sources have generated the warming on the required scale without massive use on a scale certainly greater than ours (certainly so if not also consuming fossil fuels)? Greater than ours because while ANY energy converted from storage to use then becomes part of the planet's heat load, even without greenhouse effects, though a rising temperature from electricity used from geothermal plants, say, has the effect of... rising temperature due to anything, though without the positive feedback element of adding greenhouse gases.
In fact, the use of non-replacing fossil fuels is the reason we need to jump up a level and pretty fast. Without doing so, we will reach a point at which no more are available (doesn't matter if that is the "20 years from now" I've heard since I was 10 for oil supplies, or 2600 AD I keep seeing for natural gas, or 3846 AD: the day cometh if their use is not replaced).
When that happens, a very harsh situation will develop, akin to hunter-gathers feasting on a positive feedback loop of grain and seeing their populations grow, then the grain is gone, largely, for a generation or six, and their populations fall drastically. Aided probably by fighting along the way, but also just by fewer children being supportable.
As we fall from modernity, our chance as a species will then be lost forever. Forever. Because probably no one will ever make the jump from burning wood and replacing it with wind power then developing nuclear technology (or even geothermal). So we won't "rise" again, but rather just fall away, though probably getting our 5-15 million more years before the species dies out.
If there had been such a civilization as posited in the question, we'd've run up against a wall (in Europe) hundreds of years ago when we began to actually see deforestation with no little story for ourselves that it was to increase farmland.
So WE wouldn't exist as we clearly actually do. Ergo, there was NO such civilization then, or 10,000 years BC, or 20,000 years BC, or whatever quack garbage is spewed forth by people on the fringe. When Edgar Cayce is your main scientist, you have problems.
So no, such a civilization did not exist. They did not fall from grace, nor did they reach to the stars and meet Admiral Janeway. If they had, we would not be here, and we are.
It is also a sobering thing to think about instead of worrying about our beachfront homes in Colorado and South Dakota being overrun by water someday. Decent chance the lack of alien contact (via radio, not starships) could be due to this degeneration occurring on other planets as well, if they even had a suitably long period of time between trees, bushes, plants, ferns, etc. and the evolution of bacteria that could break down their fibers. Planets with user a species that (like us) did not seem on a path to solving the energy source jump (fusion, really) before they started down the energy/civilization slope and reached a point at which they could never have another chance. Planets that (hopefully, unlike us!) that did not see the user species solve, or even seriously consider the problem itself, and tanked, and so never reached (via radio, not starships... it will NEVER be starships... we are in this system and alone, forever: well, as long as we last) any other star's planetary system's people. No more paradox, eh?
No, it could not have given the evidence of us and the ease with which incredible amounts of oil, coal, and gas were easy to obtain in the not so long ago past. Some amount, even moderate amounts could have been tectonic forces at work, but even today, some of all of them are still very easy to obtain. So no.