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This here is a nice and lovely map of Asia. Note that the teardrop-shaped Tibetan Plateau dominates the map, and we have India to thank. For the last 50 million years, it has been pushing upwards, merging into the main continent. Wherever it touched, the greatest mountain ranges rose up. Not just the Himalayas, mind you, but others like the Hindu Kush, the Karakoram, Jinping, to name a few.

But does the shoving of India to Asia influence the rest of the continent's geography? Would the mountain ranges of Turkeye, Iran, Mongolia, China and Siberia exist without India joining Asia, let alone be as big as they are today?

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  • $\begingroup$ The mountains you mention at the end have their individual history and even ages. $\endgroup$
    – user29219
    Sep 15, 2023 at 13:10

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You shall not forget that also the Arabian plate is subducting below the Eurasian plate.

In fact, the mutual interactions between the two has been investigated by many researcher; for example you can find an in-depth discussion in the PhD thesis The Central Asia collision zone: numerical modelling of the lithospheric structure and the present-day kinematics (Lavinia Tunini, 2015) [in Spanish]

In short: greatest mountain ranges are uplift where there is subduction. The fact that the Indian plate and the Arabian plate are subducting, generates mountian ranges. The fact that they are one next to the other, surely has a mutual impact.

And we are discussing things moving on a spherical shell, as soon as you rotate and up/downlift something, somewhere in the world, the complete stresses on the sperical shell are perturbed.

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You can surely add the mountains of Burma, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan (Pamir) to the picture. They are also the result of the impact, only the direction of the pressure was not perpendicular to the edge of the platform, for India moved not only to the north but a bit to the east, too. So, the mountains are not so high.

As for the northern mountains, they are rather the result of the Baykal ridge and the consequent movement of the Tarim craton to the south.

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