Is the isotope fractionation that occurs during evaporation of surface water equilibrium fractionation or kinetic fractionation? I mean, evaporation can be described by Rayleigh fractionation, but I always thought that this only occurs in equilibrium fractionation. But since we can assume that the water is carried away by the wind after evaporation, can we only assume kinetic fractionation? Does anyone have a good paper that clearly explains which fractionation process occurs during evaporation and which during condensation?



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