The answer is, "it depends on the minerals and what happened to them once they were mined".
There are two types of minerals mined: ore minerals and waste minerals. To mine ore minerals invariably waste minerals must also be mined. Waste minerals typically encapsulate orebodies. To mine the ore, some of the waste must be mined as well. For reasons of safety, stability and practicality, the walls of open pit mines cannot be vertical. They have to be sloped. Because of that, some waste must be mined to get access to the ore.
Similarly with underground mining, not all the tunnels will be mined in ore. To access the ore, some tunneling will be done in waste.
Depending on the geology of the deposit, most waste minerals will be silicates, such as the minerals within basalt, etc. The waste rock will either be dumped onto a waste dump on the surface and very slowly oxidize over time, or they will be used to backfill stopes, underground, that once contained ore minerals. In vary rare instances some of the minerals will be used as road construction materials.
As for ore minerals they must first be processed to concentrate the ore minerals. The associated waste minerals from the processing plant usually end up in a tailing dam and will slowly oxidize over time. In more recent times, at some mines, some of the minerals that are larger than 200 μm in size have been returned as paste fill to the voids from which ore minerals were extracted.
There are basically two types of ore minerals: oxides and sulfides. From these, the metals of interest will be extracted: iron, zinc, copper, tin, lead etc. In the past, the unwanted sulfide minerals may have been converted to sulfur dioxide and released into the atmosphere. Some of it may have been used to make sulfuric acid. Some of it has been dumped and is slowly oxidizing and forming sulfuric acid in the environment, to the detriment of the environment.
In the past, some sulfide ores have been burned as a fuel to rapidly oxidize the minerals to make downstream extraction of the desired metal easier. Such burning produced vast quantities of sulfur dioxide which produced acid rain, which then kill the surrounding vegetation resulting in a denuded and much damaged landscape.
Eventually, most metals that have been extracted from minerals will oxidize over time.