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I know how to find out the first few most common minerals, and I know how to find a list of 6800 minerals that one geologist found as a microscopic grain in this one meteorite. I can't seem to find a good reference for the top few hundred minerals that actually occur in macroscopic quantities in near-surface rocks.

Sorting by frequency would be great. A reference including subsurface rocks or other planets would be an interesting bonus.

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I can't seem to find a good reference for the top few hundred minerals that actually occur in macroscopic quantities in near-surface rocks.

That's because such a list does not exist. The 'first few most common minerals' you mentioned, aka the 'rock-forming minerals' account for 99.9% (at least, depends on definition) of the minerals you will find in near-surface environments. It also depends on location - the minerals you will find in a limestone are will be completely different from the minerals in granitic areas.

I also don't completely seem to understand what you mean by 'macroscopic quantities'. Are you referring to minerals that are large enough to be seem by the naked eye or that are abundant in quantity regardless of their size?

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  • $\begingroup$ The latter. Something that appears in microscopic inclusions but is ubiquitous: yes. Something that is only found in enough rocks to get put on the master list of all minerals: no. I think perhaps the phrase "rock-forming minerals" is enough for my purposes; supposedly there are about 200 so called? $\endgroup$ – Xerxes May 28 '15 at 23:56
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    $\begingroup$ Again, it will be much less than 200. I think that maybe 50 (and that's pushing it) will cover about 99.9%. $\endgroup$ – Gimelist May 29 '15 at 1:58
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    $\begingroup$ Also many names refer to specific variations. For example, most of us would class feldspars as two groups and the three end-member names, but in reality there are dozens of names for specific variations. $\endgroup$ – winwaed May 29 '15 at 13:08
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Rock forming minerals vary with the types of rocks.

Sedimentary rocks dominate the surface of the earth but igneous and metamorphic rocks dominate the rest of the crust. So you will need to look at each type depending on what part of the crust you are speaking about.

The major igneous minerals are those found in Bowen's reaction series. The sedimentary minerals are dominated by the most durable (those that can withstand erosion out of igneous rocks; quartz is a good example) or the chemical precipitates that form rocks like limestone (calcite).

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