Accept my apologies for weak formulation of my question. I do not have any background in environmental sciences, but since recently a lot of coverage in the media has been devoted to future droughts in Iran and their socio-economical effects, I got curious enough to investigate the depth of the matter. My main question is that when a drought in a region plagues an agriculture-based economy, what are the options for a fast and flexible transition in the economy of that region? By transition, I mainly mean providing a new source of income for the individuals, such that the drought does not translate to unemployment and/or relocation of people.
I assume that this has been studied, and maybe best practices already exist. However, since I'm not even remotely familiar with environment science, I don't even know which keywords I should search for.
Is there a dedicated field of research investigating this question? Is there a definitive book on this topic? It looks like a question on which a UN-related organization has already published some reports. If I want to find these hypothetical reports, what should I exactly search for?