Maybe someone knows books that are about graphic design like visual identities, colors, forms, symbols for this industry - Geology?
In short - resources that are about graphic design from Geology point of view?
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There is an very detailed "Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization" by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) including e.g. color and pattern charts.
Check the main website for the latest version of the Standard, availabe in PostScript format, as pdf, or as ArcGIS10 template.
I don't think there are any general books on graphic design for geologists.
However, there are some books about graphical standards for geological maps and sections:
For colour, you might be interested in the Munsell Rock Color Chart, though it's for describing actual rocks, not making geological maps.
There are lots of books on cartographic design, for example:
Finally, there are Edward Tufte's amazing books, a must-read for anyone interested in the design of scientific graphics of any kind.