It depends upon the hydraulic conductivity, the degree of saturation, and the depth to water table. Generally, water seeping down in the unsaturated zone moves very slowly. Assuming a typical depth to water table of 10 to 20 metres, the seepage time could be a matter of minutes in the case of coarse boulders, to months or even years if there is a lot of clay in fine sediment. Under saturated conditions, the water might move a lot faster. Other factors include the configuration of the wetting front, the unsaturated storage, temperature, and the hydraulic gradient. So basically, there is no simple answer - it's all a matter of the local hydrogeology.
There is no substitute for local measurement - water levels in an observation bore, in the case of water table conditions, or tensiometry in the case of the unsaturated zone.