Some features of Earth (and beyond) have been bugging me for quite some time. When molten rock is beneath the surface, it's called "magma". Above the surface, it is called "lava". When a bolide is in orbit of any planet, it's called a "meteoroid". When it makes contact with the atmosphere, it becomes a "meteor". When it hits the surface, it becomes a "meteorite". But changing one's name based on a change in location is, at best, superficial and has no relation to chemistry and composition.
Are there any REAL differences between magma and lava? Are there any REAL differences between a meteoroid, a meteor and a meteorite? If not, then why do we call them by different names?