I looking for a catalog (ideally in a ASCII file) of the major tectonic faults on earth, in order to plot some of them on a map
Any suggestion ?
A good database of tectonic plates is available at the Institute for Geophysics of the University of Texas. The database includes present conditions and past and future conditions. They provide ASCII files in their ftp site. Source
Another option is the data from Peter Bird at UCLA that he described in his article "An updated digital model of plate boundaries", $G^3$, 2003. He provides the data in ASCII format in their ftp site (they include a readme file with the description of the data).