# How much is Iceland/Norway/Western Europe warmed up by the Meriodional Overturning Circulation?

A shutdown in the circulation was associated with the Younger Dryas stadial, also referred to as the Big Freeze, so I'm curious how much warmer Western Europe is due to the MOC, and how much heat (in Joules) the MOC actually releases into the region.

• @plannapus: While the questions are related, I feel the question here is much more focus on the relation to climate fluctuations like the Younger Dryas. May 12 '14 at 15:13
• @plannapus They are not duplicates. This question asks how much NW Europe is heated, the other one asks how much more it is heated compared to NE America. Those are related but different questions.
– gerrit
May 13 '14 at 16:17

To answer the numerical aspect of your question: Rintoul & Wunsch 1991 advanced a poleward heat flux in the North Atlantic (i.e. that generated by the Gulf Stream) of $1.3\pm0.2\times 10^{15}W$.