There is two parts to this answer, first continental crust tends to persist and oceanic tends to be recycled. This is largely due to density, continental crust is less dense and tends to "float" compared to the mantle and is very difficult to push back into the mantle for remelting. Only a tiny fraction of continental crust ever gets subducted mostly as sediment on oceanic crust, so basically by piggybacking on subducting oceanic crust. This is why continent to continent convergent boundaries form mountains with no subduction, they can only push down by pushing even more material up, in effect packing together like wads of compressing clay.
Second continental crust is reworked by other processes, erosion, faulting, rifting, mountain building, metamorphic processes, etc. These are regional effects and thus more random, so how much they alter can vary quite a bit from continent to continent. Exposed un-reworked continental crust is rare but this is due to the accumulation of events reworking smaller regions and the tendency of sediment covering it up. There is much more unexposed old continental crust buried under the sediment, often referred to as the shield portion of the craton, Shield is the portion of the continental crust that is not sediment and is not tectonically active (even some shield is partially metaphorically altered, but this is where you find unaltered material) There is quite of bit of ancient shield (brown in this picture) although it still makes up a small percentage of the overall continental crust. Even then only a fraction of it has survived all the continental cycles and is completely unaltered since the first continents formed.
This image illustrates how much of the oldest continental crust is still around(purple).
Basically oceanic crust is guaranteed to be reworked eventually, check the age of oceanic crust, while continental crust has a more random factor involved meaning some in the more stable regions of some continents has not been reworked. That is why they are only small scattered areas.