I would like to calculate the latitude values of a Gaussian Grid of a size of my choosing. Unfortunately, I didn't find a method or a formula to do so. Where can I find this information? Alternatively, is there a function publicly available that can do the job?
I believe the NCL function NCL gaus should be able to give you the solution you are looking for. From the API documentation you are requested to provide - the number of latitude points per hemisphere and you should get Gaussian latitudes and Gaussian weights.
Here is a code sample from their website
nlat = 64 ; for globe gau_info = gaus(nlat/2) ; divide by 2 to get "per hemisphere" glat = gau_info(:,0) ; gaussian latitudes ( 1st dimension of gau_info) gwgt = gau_info(:,1) ; gaussian weights ( 2nd dimension of gau_info)