Questions tagged [air-pollution]

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment.

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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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Does Start / Stop technology in cars have an impact on air quality? [closed]

I have repeatedly heard from various car enthusiasts that start stop technology has no benefit (or the tiniest smallest negligble benefit) to air quality so they turn it off entirely. Does it have an ...
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Origin of Serious Wildfires

At a very rough estimate, what proportion of wildfires are caused by natural events like lightning? I am absolutely sure that in Europe, where there are often wildfires, the sun is never hot enough to ...
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Origin of Sulphuric Acid in the Atmosphere

I often see claims that volcanic emissions of sulphur dioxide, on Earth and on the planet Venus, creates sulphuric acid when it combines with water vapour. It doesn't. Sulphur dioxide creates ...
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Atmospheric conditions needed that blocks all bright light during sunsets and allows you to stare directly at the sun

Today (July 5th, 2019 just before 8 pm KST), along the Han River in Seoul, the surface of the sun could be viewed with my naked eye (no protection needed), and this was safe on the eyes. It appeared ...
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What is the Carbon Footprint of not changing car oil?

I am on my second vehicle that I have stopped changing my oil after the car has been broke in or around 90k. The first car I made it 400k miles before the rear end went out. The second car I'm at 130k ...
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137 views

Are these plane trails seen from satellite

Here are photos from West of Normandy, at 7-9am after sunrise on the 14th of may, from the visible satellite. It's a bit strange that they are visible from space, they are 2-3 miles wide? Are they jet ...
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What is a Micro-Aethalometer; how do portable Black Carbon (BC) Monitors work?

The screenshot below is from MIT's Erik Velasco's presentation Particle exposure and dosage on public transport. My question is about the small, portable Black Carbon (BC) monitor. From my reading, ...
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Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

Question When discussing "PM2.5", is there any standardized understanding of which particles are or are not included? Is it everything that's 2.5 microns and smaller? Or Everything between 2.5 and 0....
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183 views

How can agricultural ammonia lead to PM2.5 production in the atmosphere?

The NPR News article Growing Corn Is A Major Contributor To Air Pollution, Study Finds talks about all sources of pollution associated with growing corn, and it singles out the application of ammonia ...
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Is pollution a contributing factor to freezing rain?

I have been to different places with nearly the same freezing temperatures, around -2°C, but only at some specific places I repetitively experienced freezing rain. One common factor at these places ...
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What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I'm currently at COP24 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) in Katowice, Poland. (some editing since I took a screenshot of my laptop) I've asked some guys about $\ce{CO2}$ emissions but very ...
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To what extent does lightning produced NOx end up in the atmopsheric boundary layer?

Lightning produced NO$_{x}$ (emitted as NO but quickly converted to NO$_{2}$) can be one of the major sources of atmospheric NO$_{x}$ in the tropics [1]. Estimates of emissions per flash range from 10 ...
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What are the benefits of direct sun viewing spectrometer over a backscatter measuring spectrometer to quantify trace gases in the atmosphere?

I am using a Pandora spectrometer and a MAX-DOAS spectrometer to quantify the amount of formaldehyde (HCHO) present in the troposphere and stratosphere in Fairbanks, Alaska. Both the spectrometers use ...
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The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
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285 views

How to map emission inventory from lat&lon corrdinate to WRF model grid

Here, I have a regional emission inventory, which mainly contains the varibales of lat,lon,...
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How to tell the difference between real rain and fake rain (cloud seeding)?

I live in a city where the pollution is bad, so bad that sometimes we get 'fake' rain (from cloud seeding). This may last for an extended period. There have been times before when it has “rained” and ...
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Are there standards for tropospheric NO2 levels considered low or high?

I'm working with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) $\ce{NO_2}$ vertical column density (molecules/cm2) data. To help interpret the values, I'm wondering if there are standards that show which values ...
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Where do bad smells eventually go?

Suppose that I haven't taken a shower for a while, or haven't disposed of my trash, or something, and the room I've been in now stinks. Then, to remove the smell from the room (presumably after first ...
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The influence of special emissions (possibly coal mining activity) on particulate matters

Based on multiple site sampling of airborne $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ , the elemental concentrations of the trace elements were analyzed. I have found out in the site near surface coal mining zone ...
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What controls the tendency of trace elements in different particle size fractions?

Trace element atmospheric particles are introduced from different sources, with both anthropogenic and natural origins. By analyzing the concentration levels of 18 elements in samples of $PM_{2.5}$ ...
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The factors should be considered to determine one specific pollutant originated from regional transportation?

Ideally, one pollutant (e.g. organic carbon, heavy metals, sulfate) should be the mixed result of local emissions and regional transportation. To quantify the contribution of local emissions is of ...
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How can I account for rainfall effects on air pollution?

How can I adjust black carbon surface mass air pollution concentrations (ug/m3) for rainfall effects? Specifically, I have monthly and daily averaged black carbon pollution data (i.e. 2.0ug/m3 Jan ...
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How Can Smog in Metropolitan Cities like Delhi & Beijing Be Reduced?

These two cities are facing the worst smog in Asia and I think in the world and people of these cities have no choice other than to wear masks when going outside. ...
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90 views

What control the atmospheric lifetime of different metals in aerosols?

Background I'm analysing the metallic elements in $PM_{2.5}$ to identify their possible anthropogenic sources for the study area. A total of 19 metallic elements were investigated including dust-...
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Haze in Arizona / Grand Canyon that gets more apparent around noon - smog or something else?

I just came back from the Grand Canyon, and it's awesome. However, my friend and I did notice something - it seems that there's some kind of haze in the far horizon that seems worse as the sun rises ...
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Less pollution: moving hurricane debris to other regions for use, or burning?

When a big hurricane hits, it can create debris on the scale of $\mathrm{10^8 yd^3}$. Cities in Florida, Texas, and other affected areas are struggling to hire enough trucks and drivers to pick it up ...
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After days of smoky air, why is it healthier to stay inside?

A large wildfire has been burning for four days some distance from my town. The air is smoky, but not smokier than yesterday or the day before. General wisdom holds that we should all stay indoors. ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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Which chemicals in smog obscure visibility?

I know that smog is generally a mixture of various chemicals, such as peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone. I also know that smog obscures visibility. My question is two-fold: What chemical in smog ...
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How to relate the backward trajectories with offline particular samples?

To correlate chemicals in aerosols emanating from certain sample points, backward trajectory analysis is usually applied for identifying the potential geographical source region. In this figure ...
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How can ice crystals with adsorbed chlorine remain over the south pole all winter?

I just saw the Periodic Video Ozone on Bondi Beach - Periodic Table of Videos where the impact of Chlorine from CFCs on Ozone is discussed. At around 04:00 or so, ...
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What is the impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone production and vice versa?

I know ground ozone reduce the photosynthesis rate of vegetation and could lead to increase respiration and hence more CO2 in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. But what is the opposite? ...
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How is water surrounding an area of pollution, able to 'trap' that pollution, or otherwise deteriorate air quality?

An article seems to assert that air pollution can be held in place (or 'trapped') by high mountains surrounding the area of air pollution. This seems very understandable. But the same article seems ...
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How much Sulfur Dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere from a mine fire?

Since burning coal leads to a variety of air pollutants, presumably a coal mine fire would also lead to air pollutants. My question is whether there have been any published studies on the emission ...
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How much worse is the typical subway air, compared to street-level air pollution, in a typical city?

An excerpt from a section about the capital of Taiwan, in an article I wrote about Air pollution in Taiwan: Further more, in greater Taipei, the outdoor PM2.5 concentration in the air at ground-...
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How is it determined whether an air pollutant is “hazardous”?

The US EPA has a list of 187 air pollutants that they consider "hazardous". These toxic pollutants are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health conditions. How is it determined ...
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How to understand the bizarre high level for both PM2.5 and Ozone

Background Eastern China now (2017.01) are suffering severe haze with striking concentration of PM2.5. Haze, with low visibility and complex chemical components threatens billions of persons' health. ...
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How can I test the Air Quality?

I'm unable to find good sources to make myself an AQI(Air quality Index) measuring device. All I was able to find was the way it is calculated in different regions. ...
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Why are inversion layers so important in meteorology?

I keep hearing the term "inversion layer" when reading about pollution and meteorology. I know it vaguely amounts to "some place where the gradient of temperature is inverted". But why are inversion ...
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The higher value range for the same satellite product (NO2_OMI_TEMIS)

I'm dealing with NO2 column density of troposphere, and my data source is TEMIS. The NO2 level3 data can be derived from the original information of OMI instrument. I have downloaded two types of ...
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Could a reported rainfall pH of 3.1 actually be realistic?

In this Chemistry question Is there any reason to fear personal exposure to rain with a pH of 3.1? I haven't gotten any answer, but there was some discussion about the reality of the measurement. So ...
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774 views

Convert OMI NO2 Vertical Column Density (molecules/cm^2) into Mixing Ratio (ppm)

I want to convert OMI AURA data on NO2 column amounts in molecules/cm2 into ppm for comparison purposes with other literature. Can it be done? Is there a standard way of doing it? I looked into the ...
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Determining '< x' values as numeric

I do have a large dataset containing nearly a decade of particulate matter measurements. At the lower precision limit of the measuring instrument, there are values given like ...
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Possible new air pollution in town, what to do

Over the last approximately six month an auto parts plant in town has started releasing quite a bit of what smells like paint fumes. When it first started it was pretty rare to get an overwhelming ...
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Dig in the rationality of model evaluation of WRF with land-based station data

I use WRF (Weather research and forecasting) model for in regional scale meteorology simulation. And then, the WRF output files will be deemed as criterial input data applying for chemical transport ...
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How would pesticide vapor drift behave near a valley?

I am considering buying a house in a valley with pesticide-intensive agriculture on both sides. Schematically, it looks like this: It won't win any design awards, but it should make things clear. ...
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What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
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How do current pollution levels in Los Angeles compare to the 1970s?

As I understand it there are two key kinds of air pollution: ozone and fine particles. Are there any long-term data series that chart average ozone levels and/or fine particulates over time going ...
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Correlation analysis with primary air pollutants and secondary formed ozone

The Ph.D dissertation Assessment of air quality in Northern China by using the COSMO-ART model in conjunction with satellite and ground-based data which was written by Stefanie Schrader in KIT German....