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Questions tagged [air-pollution]

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment.

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To what extent does lightning produced NOx end up in the atmopsheric boundary layer?

Lightning produced NO$_{x}$ (emitted as NO but quickly converted to NO$_{2}$) can be one of the major sources of atmospheric NO$_{x}$ in the tropics [1]. Estimates of emissions per flash range from 10 ...
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What are the benefits of direct sun viewing spectrometer over a backscatter measuring spectrometer to quantify trace gases in the atmosphere?

I am using a Pandora spectrometer and a MAX-DOAS spectrometer to quantify the amount of formaldehyde (HCHO) present in the troposphere and stratosphere in Fairbanks, Alaska. Both the spectrometers use ...
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Quantitative principles to discriminate the photochemical activity in the atmosphere

Background In the area of atmospheric chemistry, many species have the primary origins and secondary formation pathway. For example, organic aerosols can be emitted directly from fuel combustion, ...
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The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
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How to map emission inventory from lat&lon corrdinate to WRF model grid

Here, I have a regional emission inventory, which mainly contains the varibales of lat,lon,...
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1answer
326 views

How to tell the difference between real rain and fake rain (cloud seeding)?

I live in a city where the pollution is bad, so bad that sometimes we get 'fake' rain (from cloud seeding). This may last for an extended period. There have been times before when it has “rained” and ...
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Are there standards for tropospheric NO2 levels considered low or high?

I'm working with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) $\ce{NO_2}$ vertical column density (molecules/cm2) data. To help interpret the values, I'm wondering if there are standards that show which values ...
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280 views

Where do bad smells eventually go?

Suppose that I haven't taken a shower for a while, or haven't disposed of my trash, or something, and the room I've been in now stinks. Then, to remove the smell from the room (presumably after first ...
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The influence of special emissions (possibly coal mining activity) on particulate matters

Based on multiple site sampling of airborne $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ , the elemental concentrations of the trace elements were analyzed. I have found out in the site near surface coal mining zone ...
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What controls the tendency of trace elements in different particle size fractions?

Trace element atmospheric particles are introduced from different sources, with both anthropogenic and natural origins. By analyzing the concentration levels of 18 elements in samples of $PM_{2.5}$ ...
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The factors should be considered to determine one specific pollutant originated from regional transportation?

Ideally, one pollutant (e.g. organic carbon, heavy metals, sulfate) should be the mixed result of local emissions and regional transportation. To quantify the contribution of local emissions is of ...
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How can I account for rainfall effects on air pollution?

How can I adjust black carbon surface mass air pollution concentrations (ug/m3) for rainfall effects? Specifically, I have monthly and daily averaged black carbon pollution data (i.e. 2.0ug/m3 Jan ...
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How Can Smog in Metropolitan Cities like Delhi & Beijing Be Reduced?

These two cities are facing the worst smog in Asia and I think in the world and people of these cities have no choice other than to wear masks when going outside. ...
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What control the atmospheric lifetime of different metals in aerosols?

Background I'm analysing the metallic elements in $PM_{2.5}$ to identify their possible anthropogenic sources for the study area. A total of 19 metallic elements were investigated including dust-...
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Haze in Arizona / Grand Canyon that gets more apparent around noon - smog or something else?

I just came back from the Grand Canyon, and it's awesome. However, my friend and I did notice something - it seems that there's some kind of haze in the far horizon that seems worse as the sun rises ...
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Less pollution: moving hurricane debris to other regions for use, or burning?

When a big hurricane hits, it can create debris on the scale of $\mathrm{10^8 yd^3}$. Cities in Florida, Texas, and other affected areas are struggling to hire enough trucks and drivers to pick it up ...
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After days of smoky air, why is it healthier to stay inside?

A large wildfire has been burning for four days some distance from my town. The air is smoky, but not smokier than yesterday or the day before. General wisdom holds that we should all stay indoors. ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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Which chemicals in smog obscure visibility?

I know that smog is generally a mixture of various chemicals, such as peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone. I also know that smog obscures visibility. My question is two-fold: What chemical in smog ...
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How to relate the backward trajectories with offline particular samples?

To correlate chemicals in aerosols emanating from certain sample points, backward trajectory analysis is usually applied for identifying the potential geographical source region. In this figure ...
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How can ice crystals with adsorbed chlorine remain over the south pole all winter?

I just saw the Periodic Video Ozone on Bondi Beach - Periodic Table of Videos where the impact of Chlorine from CFCs on Ozone is discussed. At around 04:00 or so, ...
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What is the impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone production and vice versa?

I know ground ozone reduce the photosynthesis rate of vegetation and could lead to increase respiration and hence more CO2 in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. But what is the opposite? ...
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How is water surrounding an area of pollution, able to 'trap' that pollution, or otherwise deteriorate air quality?

An article seems to assert that air pollution can be held in place (or 'trapped') by high mountains surrounding the area of air pollution. This seems very understandable. But the same article seems ...
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1answer
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How much Sulfur Dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere from a mine fire?

Since burning coal leads to a variety of air pollutants, presumably a coal mine fire would also lead to air pollutants. My question is whether there have been any published studies on the emission ...
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How much worse is the typical subway air, compared to street-level air pollution, in a typical city?

An excerpt from a section about the capital of Taiwan, in an article I wrote about Air pollution in Taiwan: Further more, in greater Taipei, the outdoor PM2.5 concentration in the air at ground-...
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How is it determined whether an air pollutant is “hazardous”?

The US EPA has a list of 187 air pollutants that they consider "hazardous". These toxic pollutants are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health conditions. How is it determined ...
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How to understand the bizarre high level for both PM2.5 and Ozone

Background Eastern China now (2017.01) are suffering severe haze with striking concentration of PM2.5. Haze, with low visibility and complex chemical components threatens billions of persons' health. ...
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How can I test the Air Quality?

I'm unable to find good sources to make myself an AQI(Air quality Index) measuring device. All I was able to find was the way it is calculated in different regions. ...
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678 views

Why are inversion layers so important in meteorology?

I keep hearing the term "inversion layer" when reading about pollution and meteorology. I know it vaguely amounts to "some place where the gradient of temperature is inverted". But why are inversion ...
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1answer
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The higher value range for the same satellite product (NO2_OMI_TEMIS)

I'm dealing with NO2 column density of troposphere, and my data source is TEMIS. The NO2 level3 data can be derived from the original information of OMI instrument. I have downloaded two types of ...
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Could a reported rainfall pH of 3.1 actually be realistic?

In this Chemistry question Is there any reason to fear personal exposure to rain with a pH of 3.1? I haven't gotten any answer, but there was some discussion about the reality of the measurement. So ...
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1answer
404 views

Convert OMI NO2 Vertical Column Density (molecules/cm^2) into Mixing Ratio (ppm)

I want to convert OMI AURA data on NO2 column amounts in molecules/cm2 into ppm for comparison purposes with other literature. Can it be done? Is there a standard way of doing it? I looked into the ...
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Determining '< x' values as numeric

I do have a large dataset containing nearly a decade of particulate matter measurements. At the lower precision limit of the measuring instrument, there are values given like ...
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Possible new air pollution in town, what to do

Over the last approximately six month an auto parts plant in town has started releasing quite a bit of what smells like paint fumes. When it first started it was pretty rare to get an overwhelming ...
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Dig in the rationality of model evaluation of WRF with land-based station data

I use WRF (Weather research and forecasting) model for in regional scale meteorology simulation. And then, the WRF output files will be deemed as criterial input data applying for chemical transport ...
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How would pesticide vapor drift behave near a valley?

I am considering buying a house in a valley with pesticide-intensive agriculture on both sides. Schematically, it looks like this: It won't win any design awards, but it should make things clear. ...
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What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
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How do current pollution levels in Los Angeles compare to the 1970s?

As I understand it there are two key kinds of air pollution: ozone and fine particles. Are there any long-term data series that chart average ozone levels and/or fine particulates over time going ...
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Correlation analysis with primary air pollutants and secondary formed ozone

The Ph.D dissertation Assessment of air quality in Northern China by using the COSMO-ART model in conjunction with satellite and ground-based data which was written by Stefanie Schrader in KIT German....
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How to transform the inventory data from degrees to kilometers

First all, my question was different from the question Converting grid resolution from degrees to kilometers. In chemical transport modeling, the pollutant source inventory was an essential input ...
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195 views

How to remove 'silk braid' noise in satellite data?

Satellite remote sensing data is a powerful tool for researching the spatial distribution and temporal variation of atmospheric species. Aura is one satellite owing to NASA which meaning ...
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vehicular pollution [closed]

Is there any way to convert the vehicular emissions from cars during journey to oxygen or safer gases to eliminate/decrease vehicular pollution? My question is keeping in mind most populated and ...
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Dry deposition of the total sulfate deposition in forested region

Sulfate is one important inorganic aerosol in the atmosphere. It's subject to removal by two main mechanisms. Wet deposition which include rain/wash-out and cloud deposition. Dry deposition ...
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Why are “ground level” air quality monitors really on rooftops?

There are many papers that talk about the air quality at ground-level in cities, observed by air quality monitors. Some monitors are located above the building(not actually on the ground). For ...
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Why is the environmental quality index high in USA, the second most polluting country? [closed]

I saw some indexes about environmental quality in many websites, like in: http://www.numbeo.com/pollution/rankings_by_country.jsp I wonder why the environmental quality index is higher in USA and in ...
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154 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
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1answer
950 views

What's the background concentration of trace gas/pollutants?

I have read a paper discussing the concentration of air pollutants and their background concentration. In the paper Characterization of background air pollution exposure in urban environments using a ...
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2answers
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Does usual city pollution have effects on relative humidity?

I've noticed that in a rural area with low pollution the relative humidity is constantly lower than the humidity in a high polluted city. Is there any correlation between pollution and humidity?
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Quantitative mapping of air pollution Sifakis and Paronis

I am reading this paper about deriving AOT and I have found this ...
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103 views

What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...