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The gaseous mass or envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Where on Earth does the atmosphere have the most $O_2$ concentration?

Is there a map that shows the average oxygen concentration in the atmosphere? Seems to me that it would be where the most plants are but I wonder if population and industry make a difference in oxygen ...
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0answers
24 views

Cressman interpolation and objective analysis [migrated]

I have read this question and answer - Interpolation of scattered data to a regular grid in python and I am doing something similar as I have temperature values of the atmosphere at different heights ...
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0answers
51 views

Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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0answers
36 views

How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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0answers
12 views

How long is the ISS visible from Earth? [closed]

If I‘d lie on the ground and the ISS became visible, how long could I see it (min/sec), if the circumstances were perfect and I didn't change my position?
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3answers
7k views

How do 'greenhouse gases' let heat in, but not let it out?

That honestly doesn't make any sense to me. How could heat pass through a gas one way but not the other? Its not like our upper atmostphere has a bunch of doors that can only open one way. To me, that ...
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2answers
84 views

If the nitrogen and oxygen in our atmosphere were doubled would the pressure double?

As to P=ρgh, would the height of the atmosphere be affected by an increase in nitrogen and oxygen mass or would the height remain constant? Thanks!
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0answers
36 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
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0answers
61 views

Why is the sky blue? Due to the ozone layer or due to ''light scatterization in atmosphere''? [closed]

I've found several answers to the question of why the sky is blue. Basically the title. Elaborate however you want...
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0answers
24 views

Why is potential vorticity so emphasized in technical work, but often neglected in maps on weather websites?

When I was first introduced to potential vorticity, I was told that it is a very important tool for meteorologists to learn. Sure, it solved a simple problem in dynamics, but it wasn't apparent to me ...
3
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1answer
83 views

Where on Earth has the least changing temperature? [closed]

Is there a map that shows places where the temperature changes the least season to season? Is there a place on Earth where the temperature is the most constant in a comfortable range?
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0answers
27 views

What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
2
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1answer
60 views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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0answers
28 views

Is volume of air increasing as CO2 levels increase?

CO2 levels are increasing, they have crossed 400 ppm, which means that of every million gas molecules in the air, 400 are of CO2. It has been increasing. Does that mean the total volume of air in the ...
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1answer
23 views

How closely related is surface air temperature to pressure?

Obviously with a given mass and volume of air, pressure is directly proportional to temperature. However, I would expect the total mass of air within a column of atmosphere to vary over time, due to ...
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2answers
68 views

what is the best way to actually make the Earth lose heat?

I know that refrigerated air just moves heat around, and creates more by using fossil fuel energy in the process. If we wanted to actually reduce the amount of net heat energy in an area on the ...
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0answers
17 views

Integrate raster file at different pressure levels in raster R

How can i integrate specific humidity across different pressure level in r when using reanalysis data. ie how to implement equation where qu is is the variable to ...
2
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0answers
85 views

Why is the night very bright in the Himalayas?

Some years ago I had the chance to climb the Himalayas. Not the Everest of course, but the Annapurna Base Camp which is about 4km above sea level. During the night of the stay I went out to do some ...
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1answer
121 views

Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya

I have two questions based on the history of atmospheric oxygen levels depicted below. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2.png. The notes below the chart explain ...
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0answers
10 views

Quantitative principles to discriminate the photochemical activity in the atmosphere

Background In the area of atmospheric chemistry, many species have the primary origins and secondary formation pathway. For example, organic aerosols can be emitted directly from fuel combustion, ...
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1answer
144 views

Difference between sulfuric clouds and sulfuric haze (on Venus)?

In a conversation in comments below this answer to the question in Space Exploration Could we see the surface of Venus after the explosion of a H-bomb in its atmosphere? we're speculating about what ...
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2answers
27 views

Calculating exoatmosphereic flux and figuring out amount of SW Earth will absorb at an albedo of 0.3?

Am working through two problems which I am not sure if I am handling correctly. Here they are: a. If the Earth decreases its distance from the sun by 0.03 Astronomical Units (AU), what will be ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Are there any flights that fly east both from origin to destination and from destination to origin?

Flying east is faster so I expect that if the destination are on opposite points or closer, that the flights between them always be to the east. For example Los Angeles to Delhi. I see the fly is ...
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0answers
36 views

Why does the Earth have six atmospheric bands? [duplicate]

I know that the earth has atmospheric banding like the gas giants. What I want to know is why six in specific? What physical processes or equations determine the number of atmospheric bands on a ...
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0answers
201 views

Why is the skyline hazy on the Greek islands?

I've recently been to Crete, Santorini and am currently on Ios. I've noticed that there is a hazy-ness when I look out on the sea: there's no definitive line where sky meets sea, they just blur ...
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0answers
133 views

How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze that is stronger than other local wind? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze and a vortex in the center to entrap a blimp ...
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1answer
57 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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0answers
22 views

How to analyze this data showing atomospheric CO2, CH4 and tempertures obtain from an ice sample?

Here is the chart: My questions are: Is the atmosphere in equilibrium over this record? how would I determine what the maximum and minimum values for each record is (approximation). Is there a ...
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1answer
54 views

At what rate does Earth's atmosphere shed heat into space?

If we had a heat bank account (the atmosphere) + heat cash supply (ice) + heat debt (the oceans) could governments find a way to balance our heat economy that doesn't kill ...
5
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1answer
98 views

How to calculate residence time for an element in a reservoir?

The residence time for an element in a reservoir can be calculated by the reservoir size at steady state divided by the inflow or outflow rate. Given the following diagram, I need to calculate the ...
10
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2answers
84 views

A rough picture about the ground-level ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia is the only alkaline gas in the atmosphere. It is one of the key features to control the acidity of aerosols and the formation of ammonium salts. In the environment of $NH_3$-rich and $NH_3$-...
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0answers
30 views

Where on Earth is the highest atmospheric pressure with the least amount of wind? [duplicate]

This question differs because it is not the same. In the blue area where is the highest air pressure? With a storm is OK with an average to. My question was partially a duplicate but I am still ...
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0answers
46 views

What would happen to the Subtropical Ridge/Horse latitudes and Polar front if the Earth was rotating 5% faster?

Would they move towards the Equator/Poles? Stay in the same place? What about if the Earth was rotating 10% slower? Is there a rotation speed for Earth which will lead to 4 wind belts instead of 3 ?
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0answers
20 views

What's the difference between uptake and adsorption of gas into aerosols

In the area of atmospheric chemistry, I have learned that the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 is one of the important pathways for sulfate formation. The reactions of SO2 oxidation in mineral, soot ...
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1answer
29 views

Does anyone have absorption coefficients at different wavelengths for sulfur dioxide? [closed]

Does anyone have absorption coefficients for sulfur dioxide at various wavelengths?
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1answer
92 views

What is the difference between radiation balance and the global energy balance?

Looking at two diagrams below, they seem to depict the same system. How are they different? Why one is a radiation balance model and the other a global energy balance model? RADIATION BALANCE MODEL: ...
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1answer
53 views

Understanding a diagram of Earth's radiation balance

Trying to understand this image. Can someone tell me if I have the right reasoning here: Sun has 100% SW shooting to earth 30% of that 100% is reflected by clouds 70% remains Of that 70%, 45% of that ...
4
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1answer
63 views

What are the band names of the NCEP grib files?

I'm downloading .grib files from NCEP: ftp://nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov/GFS/analysis_only/ Each file has 315 bands. What are their names? Reproducibility with R: ...
4
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1answer
159 views

How do you calculate the elevation at which clouds will form (lifting condensation level)?

I have a parcel of air at 30°C with a dew point temp of 15°C. It goes up and then back down a mountain 4km in height. Assuming the normal and dry adiabatic lapse rates apply, and an ELR=7.5°C/km, ...
3
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1answer
88 views

The atmosphere and the dispersion of greenhouse gases

I have been researching everywhere. At what level of the atmosphere do carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases occur? I can't get a straight answer and am frustrated...
3
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1answer
231 views

Does the snow come from local moisture or transported moisture?

Currently there is a snow storm coming from Europe over the UK. This is drastically dropping the temperature and making it snow lots. Is the snow coming from moisture that has been brought over from ...
2
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2answers
112 views

How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

I am using the CAMS model output data to figure out the ground level ozone at a particular place. It is given in mass mixing ratio, and I want to convert to parts per billion volume mixing ratio (...
13
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2answers
4k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
6
votes
1answer
114 views

How does temperature impact the elevation distribution of orographic precipitation?

Consider the case of two weather systems of different temperatures hitting the Andes Mountains from the west: After traveling a long distance over the Pacific ocean I would expect the air in both ...
10
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1answer
1k views

What is the fastest the Earth has ever spun?

How fast can the Earth rotate and support life? In prehistoric times, dinosaurs were so massive that archeologists wonder how they were not crushed under their own weight. Could a fast spinning Earth ...
4
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1answer
405 views

How high is too high for hydrogen to rise?

If hydrogen is the lightest gas known, would it rise making the outermost part of the atmosphere mostly hydrogen? Images to associate with your answer would be much appreciated. Thanks
2
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0answers
109 views

Why are all rainbows are not the same? [closed]

How does these rainbows water drops differ? I know it has to do with the size of water drops refracting light. Is there a formula that determines the type of rainbow? Icebow Unlike this questions ...
13
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1answer
208 views

Where do bad smells eventually go?

Suppose that I haven't taken a shower for a while, or haven't disposed of my trash, or something, and the room I've been in now stinks. Then, to remove the smell from the room (presumably after first ...
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0answers
77 views

Electricity in clouds and induced magnetism

This is well known to everyone that clouds carry electric charges and cumulonimbus clouds contain huge amount of electricity. It is also known from Maxwell's equations that moving particles induce ...
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0answers
59 views

A balloon falling from space?

How long would it take for a store bought rubber balloon filled in space with air to fall from space just outside the atmosphere and touch ground? Would it Pop?