Skip to main content

Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
0 answers
15 views

The gravity wave and acoustic wave calculation in atmospheric models

I am wondering about the gravity wave (as well as the acoustic wave) calculation in atmospheric model. I know that the non-hydrostatic model should take the internal gravity wave and acoustic wave ...
Floris Chen's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
49 views

Effect of changes in the air's nitrogen-oxygen-carbondioxide proportions

I recall (although, perhaps wrongly), from my PADI scuba diving books, that air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 0.8% CO2 and 1.2% O2. I was wondering, what would happen to our lungs (or to that of any ...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
99 views

How come the pressure/shock waves of an explosive volcanic eruption almost always fail to cause any damage?

(Please read the text thoroughly before giving an answer) A big explosive eruption goes off with the energy of hundreds or thousands of nuclear weapons combined. It would be expected that the massive ...
TitaniumVCarbon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
14 views

Oxygen concentrations in the air and absorption rates at sea, even under windy conditions

If I measure the amount of oxygen in the air at sea, is it the same as if I measure it on land? What if there is wind? Does oxygen concentration, change, in the middle of wind? What about the ability ...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Effect of carbon dioxide on past ice ages

If anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide has prevented the earth from entering a new ice age, why were past ice ages not prevented from occuring since carbon dioxide levels were much higher in the ...
Daniel J Rice's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
41 views

Rainbow coloured horizon opposite sunrise

This is my first post, so I apologise in advance for its poor quality. Yesterday morning I was on an early morning flight over New Zealand's South Island travelling North. At around 7:00 am, the sun ...
KyrVorga's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
96 views

What would be the atmospheric pressure if the atmosphere was 2/3 the density of water?

I came across a theory that proposed that earth's atmosphere must have had a density of 660 kg/m^3 during the mesozoic, and the gigantic size the dinosaurs attained on land was only possible due to ...
A.J's user avatar
  • 51
0 votes
1 answer
101 views

How do bull’s eye squalls occur?

The only things I could find on the internet were that they had vortices and are marked by an isolated cloud, for example, in the American Met. Soc. glossary: https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bull%...
Harrychink's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
174 views

The total pressure / total mass of earth's atmosphere on geological time scales

In many introductory geology courses, a great deal of time is spent on the historical composition of earth's atmosphere: the great oxygenation event, oxygen maximum during the carboniferous, ups and ...
5th decile's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

metpy divergence module array indexing error

i am trying to find out moisture divergence using metpy divergence module and i used qu12=q3b*u3b qv12=q3b*v3b HMD12 = mpcalc.divergence(qu12, qv12) here qu12 ,...
Letitbe's user avatar
  • 41
1 vote
0 answers
60 views

Why do negative and positive leaders behave differently

Why is it that negative lightning leaders step much more frequently compared to positive leaders Unfortunately,the only paper on it I could find was paywalled: Toward a theory of 'stepped-leaders' in ...
Harrychink's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
68 views

What would Earth's atmosphere be like today if life had never existed on it?

I'm also interested in understanding the mechanisms that affect what happens to the various gases in the atmosphere over time. That is, do they get locked away in minerals, stay in the atmosphere, or ...
phil1008's user avatar
  • 171
3 votes
0 answers
52 views

What is the correct velocity to calculate propagation speed of a Rossby Wave?

Rossby Waves have different phase- and group velocities. For a pure zonal wave with wave number k they are $$v_p=\overline u - \frac{\beta}{k^2}$$ $$v_g=\overline u + \frac{\beta}{k^2}$$ So group ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
1 vote
1 answer
86 views

On the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere

The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere is 21 percent, according to NASA.gov. I was trying to make a mathematical calculation about oxygen consumption of humans, when I realised that there is a gap ...
SPANDAN DASH's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
57 views

How did the Earth cool from a temperature of hundreds-of-degrees, if runaway greenhouse effects also happen?

From this article: the team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) studied what would happen if the greenhouse effect were trapped inside ...
spraff's user avatar
  • 653
3 votes
2 answers
99 views

With the Earth revolving around the Sun , is there some [invisible] "tail" like Shooting Stars & Comets have?

Shooting Stars & Comets have tails. Here is Example Wiki Image showing Comet with 2 tails : With the Earth revolving around the Sun , is there some [invisible] "tail" like Comets have ? ...
Prem's user avatar
  • 211
2 votes
1 answer
114 views

What causes the absence of rainfall during dry seasons?

I've learnt that water evaporates from the Earth's surface into the atmosphere. However, during hot/dry seasons, evaporation and transpiration occurs continuously without any sign of rainfall. What ...
Appiah Biney Kelvin's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
92 views

How can gaseous abundance in ppm be converted to density?

Consider a measurement of the concentration of a gas such as ozone in Earth's atmosphere in pseudo-units of parts-per-million (ppm). What is needed to convert such a measurement to density of the gas? ...
user900940's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
88 views

Is the atmospheric composition still changing naturally?

Earth's atmosphere has gone through "dramatic" composition changes over millions of years. A well-known example is the Great Oxidation Event. Currently the atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, 21% ...
luchonacho's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why is CO₂ abundance in the atmosphere still small?

Given the fact that industries emit about 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide each year just in the US, why is it still such a small part of the atmosphere's composition (0.04%)?
techie11's user avatar
  • 163
3 votes
1 answer
81 views

Why does relative vorticity in spherical coordinates have an extra term as compared to the usual cartesian derivation?

With $u, v$ denoting the components of wind velocity along zonal (x) and meridional (y) direction, atmospheric (relative) vorticity is usually defined by $$\zeta_z = \frac{\partial v}{\partial x} -\...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
3 votes
1 answer
81 views

Effective Radiative Forcing of Aviation Soot: Time Period Considered

I am trying to understand how athmospheric scientists are quantifying effective radiative forcing of different aviation-related warming/cooling effects as a function of total emissions over time. For ...
Wasserwaage's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
94 views

Why is U used for relative humidity in atmospheric measurement equipments?

RH is the symbol of relative humidity in many textbooks. But, in my experience, U is often used in atmospheric measurements. For example, Vaisala PTU300 means pressure, temperature and humidity. I ...
Oone's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
0 answers
56 views

What is the role of stratospheric water vapor emissions in climate change?

Water vapor is the most significant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere. However, tropospheric water vapor has a short atmospheric half-life. Therefore, anthropogenic surface-level water vapor ...
ntoskrnl's user avatar
  • 121
1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Why air laterally diverges before entering a cyclone/anticyclone?

I'm a newbie in meteorology so sorry if this is a dumb question. I get the general idea of how cyclones form, but one thing I can't wrap my head around is why must the air diverge laterally when ...
user29373's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Does air in the atmosphere get friction due to the planet's rotation?

Does air in the atmosphere suffer friction in some way due solely to the planet's rotation?
vengaq's user avatar
  • 201
3 votes
1 answer
88 views

Why is one term missing in the derivation of continuity equation in isentropic coordinates?

In the book by Jonathan E. Martin "Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Dynamics - A First Course" the continuity equation for isentropic coordinates is derived by applying conservation of mass: $\...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
3 votes
0 answers
95 views

Why does the blue hour look pink when watched from an isolated island?

Blue hour is a part of nautical twilight when sky is very blue. This blueness appears because of Chappuis absorption of reddish light in stratospheric ozone. At later stages of nautical twilight, near ...
Ruslan's user avatar
  • 461
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Terraforming and maintaining a habitable atmosphere on Mars

Since Mars core does not function like Earths does, would a planetary core "kick-starting and maintaining" device be needed in order to produce a magnetosphere required to preserve the ...
Bishop Switchfoot Keef Swet's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
69 views

Is equivalent potential temperature constant also for dry adiabatic processes?

Equivalent Potential Temperature, defined as $$\theta_e = \theta \cdot e^{qL/c_pT}$$ with $\theta$ denoting potential temperature and q the specific moisture of water remains constant for wet ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
3 votes
1 answer
73 views

What is the climate footprint of burning lignite coal - once you account for the athmosheric cooling effect of sulfur dioxide?

Sulfur oxides have a strong but short lasting athmosheric cooling effect. Vulcanic eruptions provide test of that. Lignite or "brown coal" has a reputaion as a paricularly "dirty" ...
HannesH's user avatar
  • 221
4 votes
0 answers
85 views

Why atmospheric temperature lapse rate doesn't have a discontinuity at 0°C when ice is formed?

When trying to calculate the adiabatic lapse rate of moist air based on known values of basic thermodynamic properties of the constituents (ice, water, vapor,...) I came to the following question: ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
1 vote
1 answer
45 views

Is Luleå's PM10 indicative of poor air quality?

Today (17/04/2023) Luleå in Sweden has one of the lowest air quality values in the world according, to Microsoft's air quality map. Other regions with a similar value are near deserts or large urban ...
OrigamiEye's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
67 views

Why is latent heat of water vapor included in specific enthalpy of moist air?

In a lecture book we read about latent heat of moist air. I would have guessed, that the total specific enthalpy of moist air, comprised of $m_d$ kg of dry air and $m_v$ kg of water vapor is (we have ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
2 votes
0 answers
143 views

Why did the air not heat up in this experiment demonstrating the atmospheric greenhouse effect?

In the paper "Experimental Verification of the Greenhouse Effect" (full version: "Verification of the Greenhouse Effect in the Laboratory", Hermann Harde, Michael Schnell 2022), ...
Dale Cloudman's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
119 views

Confusion with thermal wind mechanism

In meteorology, we know that cold air mass sinks while warm air mass rises due to density difference, resulting in higher pressure in cold air mass. This leads to a horizontal pressure gradient from ...
electroniclearner's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
58 views

From where can I download NCEP Vertical wind?

I want to download Vertical Velocity (Pa/sec) data either in era interim or NCAR data from a website. Please I need the link.
user28799's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
177 views

How could oxygen levels have ever been higher if there is so little carbon dioxide present?

Assumptions: Essentially all oxygen that's ever been present in the atmosphere originated from oxygenic photosynthesis. The production of an oxygen molecule during photosynthesis leads to the ...
Alessandro Power's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
152 views

Do I understand pressure coordinates in the right way?

The question is simple: I still have problems with atmospheric pressure coordinates: Given the pressure dependence in the picture, what are the velocity coordinates of an air parcel moving with $\vec ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
2 votes
1 answer
136 views

My snarky cousin tossed a monkey into my ability to see large cloud at 300 miles HELP!

The top of a cumulonimbus cloud is usually about 40,000 feet and can reach heights of over 60,000 feet, which would be visible for a distance of 245 or 300 miles, respectively. from How far away can ...
Jacques Taulard's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
130 views

Estimating atmospheric vertical motion from 3D fields in WRF output

I have WRF data on isobaric levels that unfortunately does not contain a z-wind or omega field within the output, and I would like to produce some estimate as to the magnitude of synoptic-scale ...
Brendan Wallace's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
135 views

Is it possible to calculate dew point at pressure levels from ERA5 data?

I would like to calculate dew point values at different pressure levels from the ERA5 data set. Is this possible and if so, how exactly can it be done? I have found an approximate formula that use ...
John Smith's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
61 views

How to estimate altitude of tropopause of other planets?

Is it possible to come up with a formula to estimate the height of the tropopause and the upper layer lapse rate only based on atmospheric composition and other atmospheric parameters (not relying on ...
Redirectk's user avatar
  • 272
30 votes
6 answers
7k views

Why aren't weather balloons left in the atmosphere permanently?

I was reading about weather balloons and the articles said that weather balloon flights usually last about two hours. When I looked up why, some articles said that when the balloons get high enough in ...
user11937382's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

How does Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) affects Tropical cyclones, onset of monsoon and the ENSO Cycle?

How does Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) affects Tropical cyclones, onset of monsoon and the ENSO Cycle? I cant seem to find any "general explanation" (concept wise) for how MJO affects the ...
user307640's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
90 views

Why are Hadley cells not symmetrical?

Why are Hadley cells not symmetrical? For example, during summer in the northern hemisphere, the Hadley cell in the Northern hemisphere is significantly weaker than the one in the Southern Hemisphere. ...
user307640's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
123 views

Why don't terrestrial storms heat up the upper atmosphere?

I was reading some articles on Jupiter, when I stumbled across this article, which said that the Great Red Spot makes the upper atmosphere really, really hot. As in "hotter-than-lava". This ...
Alastor's user avatar
  • 261
2 votes
0 answers
96 views

Moist adiabatic lapse rate

I asked this question in the Physics SE but it still lies unanswered. Hopefully Earth Science SE is more knowledgeable in the matter. Wikipedia gives the following equation to calculate the moist ...
Redirectk's user avatar
  • 272
3 votes
1 answer
97 views

Why air parcel is on a circular trajectory when considering Coriolis force

According to Coriolis force an air parcel is deflected in the absence of other forces by the acceleration (Holton, 4th Edition): These equations lead to circular motion. This figure is from a Matlab ...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 935
2 votes
1 answer
108 views

How does a volcanic eruption cool the planet's surface?

For example, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 according to this paper, The introduction of large amounts of sulphuric acid aerosol into the stratosphere increases the planetary albedo (...
pretzlstyle's user avatar

1
2 3 4 5
14