Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Why does chlorophyll only come in green?

Plants do not only come in green but chlorophyll does. The pigment in the plant creates other colored plants other then green. Could a plant grow under an alternative light spectrum like a green sun ...
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Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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How and when was the $\mathsf{CO_2}$ scrubbed when Earth was still primordial?

How and when was the $\mathsf{CO_2}$ removed in primordial Earth atmosphere? What is the main mechanism of this removal of $\mathsf{CO_2}$? Is it dissolving in water? Or rock weathering? Or was the ...
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How does total pressure affect relative humidity and how do I correct my hygrometer for pressure?

Obviously pressurized air can hold more water than regular air, so an increase in overall pressure would result in an inversely proportional decrease in relative humidity. However, I can't seem to ...
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How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
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Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to use for the Earth for humans and animals?
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Why doesn't vapor counts when calculating global radiative forcing?

When NOAA/ESRL calculates global radiative forcing (Table 2) there seems to be no contribution from water vapor. How come?
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Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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Computation of geostrophic wind

I am attempting to calculate the zonal and meridional components of geostrophic wind using the equations below: $u_g = -\frac{g_0}{f} \cdot \frac{1}{r} \cdot \frac{\partial \Phi }{\partial \phi}$ $...
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Can CO2 / greenhouse gas levels override the effects of milankovich cycles?

I understand that we are, in all likelihood, towards the end of an interglacial period (the holocene). What I'd like to know is, what has a stronger effect on global temperatures - the low point of ...
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3 Billion years ago, the earth is covered with Carbon Dioxide. Where did it go?

Oxygen gas began to appear on the earth surface about 2 billion years ago by photosynthesis. Carbon Dioxide was converted into carbohydrates in the process. Where did these carbohydrates go? If they ...
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Is Earth getting heavier or lighter?

There is meteoric material falling on the Earth constantly, as well as some protons and other light nuclei from the solar wind as well as from cosmic rays. At the same time Earth's atmosphere looses ...
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154 views

Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

Question When discussing "PM2.5", is there any standardized understanding of which particles are or are not included? Is it everything that's 2.5 microns and smaller? Or Everything between 2.5 and 0....
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Where does the sky's blueness come from; at what altitudes is it being produced?

Rayleigh scattering (mostly) results in a blue sky (Diffuse_sky_radiation) as seen from Earth's surface. Go up in a plane to cruise altitude and the sky gets noticeably blue-er, and then darker. The ...
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Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
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158 views

Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from?

This figure from Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Earth shows a hydrogen fraction of 0.000055 percent by volume. Question: Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from? Does this come directly ...
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Why did the carboniferous period have so much atmospheric oxygen?

Even if all the carbon dioxide (which makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere) in the air were sequestered by plants, would the atmosphere not remain about 21% oxygen? Why did the carboniferous period ...
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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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Can spraying sulphate particulates in the upper atmosphere to lower Earth's temperature have side effects?

According to Geoengineering treatment stratospheric aerosol injection climate change study Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea ...
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What is the CO2 concentration by altitude and why?

Here is a measurement of CO2 concentration by altitude measured by aircraft:(from Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption) Is this the usual vertical structure of CO2? ...
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Does airglow intensity systematically change during the night?

Airglow is caused, among other factors, by recombination of atoms ionized during the day. This makes me think that during the night concentration of these ions should reduce, lowering intensity of ...
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How to strong winds cause baroclinic intensification in the upper ocean?

Below is an excerpt from The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Bernt Zeitzschel, Sebastian A. Gerlach The more vigorous atmospheric and oceanic circulation during the SW monsoon causes not only the ...
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The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
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Do HAARP-like programs have effects on climate? [closed]

Military powers like USA, Rusia and China have programs to heat through electromagnetic waves the Ionosphere. HAARP supposedly is a research program, but run by part of the military of US (Air Force ...
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Is pollution a contributing factor to freezing rain?

I have been to different places with nearly the same freezing temperatures, around -2°C, but only at some specific places I repetitively experienced freezing rain. One common factor at these places ...
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Are there any consequences to carbon capture and storage that also sequesters oxygen?

A big argument for carbon capture and storage is true reversal; while switching to renewable energy and eliminating CO2 emissions is a must, it will not reverse the massive movement of carbon from ...
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How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
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How much energy is required to hold the earth’s atmosphere up against the forces of gravity?

My understanding is that the earth’s atmosphere was originally formed by the molten earth itself, and the sun was 70% weaker that present. Then as the earth cooled the energy required to keep the ...
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The differences on the atmospheric transportation for various trace metal in atmosphere

I have known that the atmospheric lifetimes of chemical species were highly dependent on their physicochemical properties. For example, $SO_2$ might exist for 5-8 days, while $NO_2$ could only exist ...
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Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
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How to predict when contrails are likely to form over a specific location using public data?

I saw the image below used as a click-attractor to an unrelated story about tourism, but found a larger version here. Contrails, or water condensation trails happen when planes pass through the ...
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Why do tethered aerostats have lower persistence than stratospheric balloons?

We have been thinking of using Aerostats/Balloons for an environmental monitoring project in our university. We have been considering 2 options: Tethered Aerostats (which fly upto 1 km) and ...
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Is there an atmospheric hydrogen cycle?

There are various physical, chemical and biological processes that free up hydrogen from molecules (often hydrocarbons or water). Once in the atmosphere, the hydrogen is lost to space (the Earth's ...
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Given a 3 box model of the atmosphere,determine fraction of mass transport from lower layer

P = 300mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 375K P = 600mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 325K P = 900mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 350K (surface) Given that a deep convective plume sends a portion of the bottom layer to the ...
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Given only pressure and potential equivalent temperature, can I determine other variables?

I am given a 3 box model of atmosphere where each layer is 300 mbar thick, and the potential equivalent temperature of each is given (from bottom to top - 350K, 325K, 375K). Am I able to determine ...
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What are the environmental effects of leaking hydrogen from large-scale energy storage mechanisms?

I recently have calculated the total cost of an energy system that is based on wind power as the primary power source and hydrogen as the energy storage mechanism. The total system costs are ...
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Technical term for percentage of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere

I have a theoretical exercise where I calculated the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere per year (4.6 ppm). We assume that the relative increase of CO2 is 2 ppm, hence the percentage of ...
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Why does warm air “hold” more moisture?

It is often explained that warm air holds more water because warmer water is less likely to condense. This and other explanations just seem to be circular arguments. If the warmer air picks up enough ...
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What were CO2 levels in Carboniferous?

What were CO2 levels in early and late Carboniferous, an what were mean levels? Who are the sources for these figures?
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Will a country that cares for its environment be affected by climate change due to other countries' activities?

Let's say my country is very environment conscious, has lots of trees and animals, protects the forest, uses clean/green energy, and has all kinds of environment friendly policies you can imagine. ...
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Over which surface will the albedo changes due to clear and overcast skies have the greatest impact?

With respect to climate change, will the changes in albedos due to clear skies and overcast skies have the greatest impact on incoming solar radiation over ocean, sea ice, or land? My thoughts: On a ...
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Clarification: Effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature

This terminology is quite confusing to me. Are effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature the same thing? Where does this occur, at the surface, or at some ...
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Optical Thickness of the Atmosphere

Homework question: Show that the absorption optical thickness of the atmosphere at pressure $p$ (i.e., between $p$ and the top of the atmosphere) as a function of the mixing ratio of the ...
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Do man-made machines take natural Nitrogen out of the atmosphere and in turn cause global warming?

I read in Wikipedia that, "Natural Nitrogen, Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere. Dinitrogen is the most abundant uncombined element in the atmosphere." Do man-made machines destroy the ...
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Ozone layer and radiation absorption

The ozone layer if compressed to a minimum on the earth's surface can absorb infrared radiation. How is it possible that the same molecule can absorb radiation of two different wavelength with ...
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Appearing of Weird Cornered Cloud in Sky?

It was about 6'o Clock in the Evening. Suddenly I noticed A wierd Cloud in the middle of the sky. Is there Natural Phenomenon responsible for creating such prefect clouds? & What it is? or ...
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Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

Earth's current average global temperature (i.e. including hot deserts and cold polar caps) is reported be somewhere between 14°C and 16°C (depending on sources and methods). This temperature varies ...
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What is the smallest and largest cloud? [closed]

When is a cloud too small to be considered a cloud? What is the largest cloud officially on record?
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659 views

Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...