Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Visible satellite imagery, atmospheric anomaly (descending air) in cumulus fields?

When looking at GOES satellite imagery, in the visible channels. I have noticed these "lines" if you will, usually forms in Cumulus fields. I understand the process of the 'Mackerel sky' (...
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Cluster of cow burps now mapped; which satellites contribute to GHGSat's high-resolution maps of ppb levels of methane emission? How do they do it?

CNN's April 30, 2022 Planet-warming emissions from cow burps have been seen from space begins: The emissions were detected by environmental data company GHGSat's high-resolution satellites in ...
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How do meteorologists accurately measure outdoor air temperature? There's sunlight, local trapping of air, radiant heat, precipitation

I'd like to know how the state-of-the-art meteorological direct, localized measurements of the temperature of the air is measured. If you put a thermometer in sunlight it may read high. If you put it ...
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Clarification of dry deposition of particles

I found a formula for the dry deposition speed of particles and an electric circuit analogy to go with it. I would like some clarification on this figure: I'm mostly interested in the top right ...
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What kind of clouds did Joseph Kittinger see at 102,000 ft?

When Joseph Kittinger in Excelsior III dwelt at his peak altitude of 102,000 ft (31 km), he reportedly saw clouds at his altitude. What in the world could these clouds have been? Polar stratospheric ...
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If there was no ozone layer, would the temperature decrease all the way from sea level to the mesopause?

The temperature increase with altitude in the stratosphere is caused by the UV radiation absorbed in the ozone layer, isn't it? What if there was no ozone layer? Would temperature keep decreasing ...
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Why does the Earth's atmosphere appear to no longer follow the curvature beyond the terminator line?

I had noticed this on Google Earth and Celestia already. Here's an image from the ISS: As you can see on the horizon, at the terminator the atmosphere doesn't seem to follow the curvature any longer ...
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radar data for buoyancy measurements of cyclones

I'm sorry if I'm asking in the wrong forum. I'm a computational scientist and I do not have much physics background. I'm working on constructing machine learning models from data. Currently, I've only ...
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But what exactly is "black carbon" in the context of snow-melting particulates reaching Antarctica?

CNN's What is black carbon? The latest way humans are causing changes in Antarctica doesn't actually say anything about what black carbon is. Neither does The Guardian's Black carbon pollution from ...
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Retrieve surface values in hybrid sigma cordinate system

I need to retrieve surface values of a parameter in high mountainous region that are in hybrid sigma coordinate system. From what I have understood, hybrid sigma coordinate has three layers in the ...
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If methane decays to $\small\sf{CO_2}$ in the atmosphere, shouldn't there be much more $\small\sf{CO_2}$?

I am trying to understand the atmospheric ppm data, specifically around how CH4 decays to CO2. This data says 2017 CH4 is about 1850ppm, and 2017 CO2 is 402ppm increasing about 3ppm/year. (https://www....
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Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
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In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
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Potential temperature constant in a well-mixed atmospheric layer?

Why is the potential temperature, defined as $\theta = T\Big(\frac{P_0}{P}\Big)^{R/c_p}$, constant in a well-mixed layer? I understand that the dew point temperature has to be parallel to a line of ...
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Pressure vs Temperature effect on humidity

I am a bit confused about pressure vs temperature effect on relative humidity. I know that air density is decreased with altitude, which means that there is more "space" between air ...
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Is there really less diurnal temperature variation in the mountains than at sea level?

I live in the Los Angeles area, at sea level. Nearby we have tall mountains where I like to go hiking. I've noticed something strange about the NOAA forecasts, which is that the forecasts in the ...
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Why does hydrodynamic escape not change isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere?

One of the means of atmospheric escape is the hydrodynamic escape. I read someplace that this doesn't cause a change in the isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere. But if you heat a group of ...
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Is the troposphere expanding?

If the Earth's atmosphere is warming it has to expand. Can we measure an increasing thickness of the troposphere?
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Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
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Didn't they get the atmospheric layers wrong in this image and which layers are those actually?

In the following image (from this article) they claim the orange part is the troposphere, the yellow/almost white part is the stratosphere and the light blue part obviously the mesosphere while those ...
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Do surface temperature inversions only occur in valleys and natural bowls?

When you read about temperature inversions online, you mostly hear about them trapping pollution in places like Salt Lake City, which is surrounded by mountains. That seems to be the case for most ...
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How does the lack of data about the Mesosphere affect our predictive knowledge of the atmosphere?

Out of all the layers of the Earth's atmosphere the Mesosphere is the hardest to collect data and experiment on, due to it's density being too much for satellites and too little for aircraft or ...
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Do "aerosol shields" protect big emitters from the impact of their own GHGs?

Green house gases typically have higher lifetimes than aerosols and their precursors (e.g. SO2) so, as I understand it, GHGs usually spread more or less evenly across continents, no matter where they ...
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What are the reaction mechanisms for singlet oxygen in the atmosphere?

Just as the production cycles of Ozone are dependent on the incident falling ultraviolet light and is fairly complex, I was wondering what the process of the production of singlet oxygen in the ...
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Is there any measured atmospheric temperature profile made public?

I'm looking for a temperature-with-altitude measurement by a sounding rocket having gone through the tropo, strato- and mesosphere, have any such results been published after temperatures were ...
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Why is the isothermal layer being considered a part of the stratosphere rather than the troposphere or being an independent layer?

At altitudes from 12-20 km (7-12.5 mi) above the midlatitudes the temperature remains constant with altitude (minus 56.5°C in the ISA). This part is usually considered to be in the stratosphere, but ...
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Creating composite dropsonde profiles?

I am working with 13 dropsonde profiles that were launched during a field program. I have been attempting to create composite profiles of them using python, but I am a bit stuck. Here are the issues ...
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What layers of the atmosphere are divided in this image by abrupt borders?

In the image of Earth from a 100,000 ft on this site you can see abruptly divided layers of the atmosphere in different shades of blue. What are they, why do they have different shades and why can't ...
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Could climate change make air unbreathable? [duplicate]

A lot of the press discussion, IPCC information and scientific inquiry about climate change refers to changes in the temperature of the atmosphere. I have not seen debates about changes in the ...
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What is the atmospheric percentage of oxygen produced by trees and phytoplankton every year?

I know that every year carbon sinks remove ~20Gt of CO2 (about half of our emissions), and release a comparable amount of O2 , But I want to know how much O2 the carbon sinks produce annually ...
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Gases descending from atmospheres

Earth’s lower atmosphere is rising due to climate change Temperature is the driving force behind this change, says Jane Liu, an environmental scientist at the University of Toronto. The troposphere ...
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Does carbon dioxide preferentially accumulate in one layer of the atmosphere?

Just as Ozone concentration peaks at around 20 km in the stratosphere, having a distribution around higher and lowers layers of the atmosphere, does the same happen for carbon dioxide or other ...
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Could increased $\ce{CO2}$ levels be a contributing factor why dinosaurs grew so big?

Is it possible that increased CO2 levels during the larger dinosaurs era is a major factor in why dinosaurs grew so big during this period? And extrapolating this question, is it possible that the ...
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How to convert $\ce{NO2}$ mixing ratio (ppmv) into $\ce{NO2}$ column density(moles/m2)?

I have a WRF-chem output with NO2 mixing ratio for 37 levels, for my analysis I need to convert it into into column density. How do I do that?
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How does atmospheric pressure remains constant even though we have released 43 billion tons of $\ce{CO2}$ in one year?

I've heard that the concentration of CO2 has been increased in the air. It should have increased atmospheric pressure, right?
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What causes these periodic high-pressure blobs along the west coast of South America?

I was looking through the Weatherbug atmospheric pressure map around 8:30 am ET on Oct 26 2021, and noticed this chain of small high pressure blobs along the west coast of South America. It was also ...
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How far into the past would you have to go before you couldn't breathe the atmosphere?

Not counting temporary events, like mass extinctions.
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Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
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Why are red auroras rare? Why do oxygen atoms (not oxygen molecules) cause auroras while molecular nitrogen cause auroras instead of atomic nitrogen?

Firstly, since there are a lot of oxygen atoms at a height of 200km, and less energy is needed to produce a red aurora than a green aurora, so it should be easier to produce red auroras than green ...
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What exactly causes this moving orange glow before sunrise?

I've been watching twilights for some time, and noticed that each time there's a very clear sky, an orange-pinkish glow is visible at the solar azimuth when Sun is somewhere between 1° and 5.5° below ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Range of frequencies of the Schumann resonance?

Crossposted at Physics SE As the surface-ionospheric gap acts as a resonator for electromagnetic waves, it should have several harmonic values from the base, fundamental frequency of 7.83 Hz. These ...
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What is the relationship between upper atmosphere phenomena and Schumann resonance?

As this Wikipedia article states in this description “... More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events—sprites, ELVES, jets, and other upper-...
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Is there a publicly accessible resource of video/image footage of the sky over an entire year?

I am looking for videos/image series that show (at least a section of) the (daytime) sky at a given location for a prolonged time (ideally > 1 year). This youtube video is one example of what it ...
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4 votes
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When would the earth run out of carbon dioxide without man made climate change?

One of my friends told me quite seriously that Gaia had evolved humans to burn the fossil fuels and thus stop the earth running out of CO2. Leaving aside the obvious nonsense it did raise an ...
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How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
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1 vote
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Why does SNAP let me open some Sentinel-5p products and not others?

Good morning, I am working with Sentinel-5p products, my final thesis is to establish a methodology for processing this type of images, from downloading to the implementation of a colour map with the ...
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7 votes
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How do I convert Sentinel-5p / TROPOMI vertical column density to concentration?

I am doing an study on Sentinel-5p TROPOMI images. I would like to convert the data from mole/m2 to μg/m3, for this I know I need the height data of the measurements. I have looked for them and I have ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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When will the Earth lose its magnetic field?

Mars lost its magnetic field 4.5 billion years ago according to this article: Mars lost its global magnetic field during the time of this heightened activity. After 500 million years, the Martian ...
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Is it natural for clouds to flow near the surface?

A week ago, I have seen something that I have never seen before, Nah it's not a flying dragon, but clouds that were flowing so near my roof (about 5-6 meters above my roof). These are the pictures, I ...
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