Questions tagged [atmosphere-modelling]

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6
votes
1answer
699 views

Why is WRF-Chem not reading my emissions data?

I've been trying to run WRF-Chem with my emissions but they are not being read by WRF-Chem. RADM2. I have emissions for the whole week, so io_style_emissions = 2 ...
2
votes
1answer
275 views

Why is radiation and total precipitation not available in ERA Interim Reanalysis at step 0?

ERA Interim reanalysis http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily/levtype=sfc surface level variables such as radiation and precipitation, but also many others, are only available at time ...
1
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0answers
426 views

SIGINT error WRF

I am trying to run WRF 3.8.1 using ncep2 but after a while the run stops and I get following error: ...
7
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1answer
343 views

What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
7
votes
1answer
403 views

How will global warming affect climate systems like the ENSO or the MJO?

How will global warming influence climate systems such as the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) or the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)?
3
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0answers
2k views

How to convert eta level to pressure level in WRF model

I am working WRF outputl file and require to extract wind and temp values at 850 hPa, 700 hPa and 500 hPa pressure levels. As the WRF vertical coordinates are based on eta level, I am having trouble ...
6
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3answers
1k views

Why are inversion layers so important in meteorology?

I keep hearing the term "inversion layer" when reading about pollution and meteorology. I know it vaguely amounts to "some place where the gradient of temperature is inverted". But why are inversion ...
1
vote
1answer
120 views

How can I implement a visualization of archived convective data from numerical weather models?

I've always found geographic visualizations of surface/mixed-layer CAPE models and other weather data to be incredibly interesting. Here's a map featured by the Capital Weather Gang over at the ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How does humidity vary with height in the Earth's atmosphere?

I am busy with the development of an "environment" model that can be used for flight simulation of all kinds of flight vehicles — ranging from quad-copters, unmanned aerial vehicles, manned aircraft, ...
2
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0answers
46 views

What would be characteristic time of the escape of an 1atm air (or oxygene atmosphere) from the Moon?

(related question) I am thinking on the Moon if it would have an oxygen atmosphere. What would be the characteristic time of its escape? Although the Moon has a much lower escape velocity as the ...
5
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1answer
81 views

What is the characteristical time of the loss of the Earth atmosphere, how can it be calculated?

Somewhere I've read it is in the order of some tens of billions of years, but unfortunately I can't find any reference with it in Google. I suspect, the losses are coming mainly from analyzing the ...
5
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0answers
96 views

Dig in the rationality of model evaluation of WRF with land-based station data

I use WRF (Weather research and forecasting) model for in regional scale meteorology simulation. And then, the WRF output files will be deemed as criterial input data applying for chemical transport ...
11
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3answers
300 views

Does finer input data lead to a better model accuracy?

Climate and chemical transport models all need input files including meteorology data, emission inventory, surface data (e.g. land use type) to initialize the simulation field. Take the case of WRF ...
9
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1answer
158 views

Why should dynamical downscaling of meteorological data be made incrementally?

When downscaling meteorological data by using limited area models, many support forums recommended you to downscale incrementally in small steps. For example let's assume that your input data is on a ...
3
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0answers
91 views

Correlation analysis with primary air pollutants and secondary formed ozone

The Ph.D dissertation Assessment of air quality in Northern China by using the COSMO-ART model in conjunction with satellite and ground-based data which was written by Stefanie Schrader in KIT German....
2
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0answers
97 views

Numerical methods for solving shallow-water equations with a source

What are the numerical methods used for solving shallow water equations (PDEs) with a mass source, at the synoptic scales of the atmosphere, if I have a finite east-west boundary (may be periodic wave ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Why is WRF most often configured at 3:1 nesting ratio?

In WRF application, nested domain has always been used for weather/air quality modeling for the place of interest in a better resolution. The figure below illustrates this: I have noticed that the ...
4
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2answers
217 views

Why does computation cost increase 24 times when the spatial resolution doubles?

In a Chinese book, I read about the relationship between the numerical model spatial resolution and the computation cost. It states: when the spatial resolution of model is finer, the result ...
2
votes
2answers
219 views

Data source of the planetary boundary layer (PBL)

PBL is one key physical quantities aimed at analysing the condition of air pollution in an area of interest. From WRF simulation, I can get the variable PBLH whixh ...
10
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2answers
704 views

Technique to delete spin-up frames from WRF

I'm a user of WRF V3.5 aiming at meteorological simulation. Sometimes, I'll run the model for a long period. My attempt I split the long period(e.g 1 year) into serval short ones. For ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Calculate precipitation from WRF model output

From WRF output file, I find 3 variables related to the precipitation (unit: mm) 1. Precipitation variable name: pr unit:$kg/(m^{2}s^1)$ variable: RAINC+RAINNC comments: $dt(...
3
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0answers
171 views

Pasquill-Gifford stability class data for one station

On my project, Stability classes is an useful tool to analysis the weather condition for one place. Using R Package Worldmet, I can get the hourly weather ...
16
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2answers
3k views

Why is aerodynamic resistance defined inversely?

When I think of wind resistance, I always think of the friction co-efficient, in $\mathrm{ms^{-1}}$, because that's always the way that it was presented in highschool and undergraduate physics. But ...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

Is there a formula for heat retained by an atmosphere, based on density and composition?

I'm looking for a formula, either precise or an approximation (it's for a video game so it's ok to have somewhat rough numbers), that determines heat retained from the sun by an atmosphere, based on ...
5
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0answers
124 views

Forced shallow-water equation with diabatic heating as the source term

How to obtain the divergence of velocity field $\left(\nabla.\mathbf{u}\right)$ with ${Q}$ (something proportional to the diabatic heating rate) as the source term from the thermodynamic equation? ...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

Why are “ground level” air quality monitors really on rooftops?

There are many papers that talk about the air quality at ground-level in cities, observed by air quality monitors. Some monitors are located above the building(not actually on the ground). For ...
21
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1answer
653 views

Significant difference between averaged wind speeds and averaged wind power density, for wind generation modelling?

Climate models outputs, particularly the reanalysis datasets, output wind speeds as zonal and meridional averages for the modelled time period (typically 1, 3 or 6 hours). So we get a 2-dimensional ...
8
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0answers
200 views

Modeling swirling storms

I'm looking to demonstrate the rotational behaviour of swirling storms with a numerical simulation. So far it includes pressure-gradient, Coriolis acceleration, frictional forces and the acceleration ...
8
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3answers
556 views

What exactly is a model grid?

I have just begun reading some notes about modelling and can't seem to understand what a 1°x1° grid or a 2.5° grid or 1/4° grid is. I know it is something related to the resolution of the area over ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Historical NWS GFS forecast data

The National Weather Service (NWS) makes the results from its Global Forecast System model (GFS) available for download as GRIB2 files. While accessing current (or recent) forecasts is straight-...
3
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1answer
106 views

Quantitative mapping of air pollution Sifakis and Paronis

I am reading this paper about deriving AOT and I have found this ...
6
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0answers
78 views

Spatial variability in ocean surface winds

For the near-surface winds over the ocean, many model products and satellite footprints have spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. I'm interested in knowing how much the winds (both ...
12
votes
2answers
233 views

What atmospheric radiative effects, if any, do contrails cause?

First of all, this question is not about the conspiracy theory based chemtrails as in the linked question, from the answers there and from the question Equation for predicting contrail formation I ...
5
votes
1answer
535 views

What is the height above ground of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 variables?

I am confused regarding the height above ground of this data set. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html I have to reprocess this data set and need to know this piece of ...
6
votes
1answer
821 views

Specific humidity range in tropical lowlands?

I am running a land biosphere model that uses meteorological data as drivers. The model has a threshold of 32g/kg for specific humidity. The data I am using taken from a reanalysis performed by J. ...
4
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1answer
2k views

How do I convert Relative Humidity into specific humidity [duplicate]

I am using NCEP_DOE reanalysis 2 data set. It include only relative humidity while I need specific humidity. How do I convert the relative humidity into specific humidity?
3
votes
1answer
143 views

Meaning of “Objectively analyzed”

I've found that there may possibly be many meanings of "objectively analyzed" and "objective analysis" in modeling and data assimilation. What are some of the accepted meanings?
7
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1answer
121 views

What causes the semi-annual mesospheric meteoric potassium variability?

In a recent study presented in the article First global observations of the mesospheric potassium layer (Dawkins et al. 2014), space-borne resonance fluorescence observations confirmed previous LIDAR ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Numerical weather forecasting - resources for a programmer?

There is a community wiki question over at A good book or source for climate science and meteorology basics? that talks about meteorology basics. Building on that, but with a slightly different focus,...
7
votes
2answers
279 views

The climatological variance of albedo, soil moisture in weather models

Looking at WRF currently but I am sure this applies to most weather models there is a file (specifically LANDUSE.TBL) that specifies USGS derived albedo, soil ...
13
votes
1answer
191 views

How do Kelvin waves determine surface temperature variations?

Kelvin waves are basically waves that balance out the Coriolis force against topographic boundaries like coastlines and mountains. It seems very important in the oceans, for example. My question is ...
5
votes
0answers
190 views

Bulk and dynamic viscosity in the atmosphere

I'm studying the physics of the atmosphere but I'm struggling with the matter of viscosity (Navier-Stokes equation) for gravito-acoustic waves. From Landau-Lifschitz : $$ (T)_{ij} = -p\delta_{ij} + \...
7
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0answers
116 views

Shallow water height as vertical coordinate

In atmospheric physics we use often a variety of vertical coordinates, $z$ the height above some reference surface, or $r$ as distance from the planetary center. However sometimes it simplifies the ...
4
votes
1answer
509 views

How much do anthropogenic carbon aerosols (soot) affect the atmospheric radiation budget?

Anthropogenic carbon or black carbon (BC), particularly soot, is a product of many human activities, a major one being incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. The occurrences of soot are mainly in ...
3
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0answers
86 views

Is the number of high/low pressure regions different at low pressure levels at high pressure levels?

Is there a higher number of mid-latitude high/low pressure regions at 850 mb, as compared to the number of high/low pressure regions at 200 mb? And if so, why?