Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Correct way to spin-up for sensitivity analysis in a Global Chemical Transport Models

In my understanding, in Global Chemical Transport Models, initial conditions are provided by spinning up the model or through previous simulation. But, can I use the same initial condition that I ...
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How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
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Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
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Can CO2 / greenhouse gas levels override the effects of milankovich cycles?

I understand that we are, in all likelihood, towards the end of an interglacial period (the holocene). What I'd like to know is, what has a stronger effect on global temperatures - the low point of ...
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How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
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Why is Earth's density gradient a step-function, rather than smooth?

Why is the density of particles in Earth's atmosphere above surface-level so much less than ground and below? Why, instead, isn't Earth simply a ball of swirling gasses / liquids, which become ...
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How long to breathe (the equivalent) of all of the atmosphere?

I have done some rough calculations of how long it might take humanity: approx 80,000 years (that's taking Earth's population as 7.5 billion, 11,000 litres a day of breathing per person, the weight of ...
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Equilibrium condition for Kelvin's Vapor Pressure-curvature equation

This is regarding the Correction due to 'Curvature of the drop' made by Lord Kelvin to the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. So, the idea is that, during large scale nucleation of water vapour into cloud ...
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How do you calculate the elevation at which clouds will form (lifting condensation level)?

I have a parcel of air at 30°C with a dew point temp of 15°C. It goes up and then back down a mountain 4km in height. Assuming the normal and dry adiabatic lapse rates apply, and an ELR=7.5°C/km, ...
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How many mole of oxygen gas is there in the atmosphere?

At standard conditions, one liter of air, 0.21 L of oxygen gas, contains 0.0094 moles of $\rm O_2$. What is the total quantity of oxygen gas molecules in the atmosphere?
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Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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How much of earth's molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is due to plants?

I know plants form a critical part of the earth's biosphere, including molecular oxygen production. Molecular oxygen makes up ~20% of our atmosphere. How much of the earth's molecular oxygen in the ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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Why is the mass of atmosphere of Venus so much greater than that of the Earth?

Earth and Venus have a very similar gravity, but the mass of atmosphere on Venus is much greater (according to this wikipedia article 93 times larger). I know that the chemical composition and ...
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Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
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What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
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Question Concerning Meteorite Ejecta Travel

I was researching more into the studies done by Kjaer and his team ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235527/ ) concerning the hypothesis about the Younger Dryas impact crater named ...
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What if Pinatubo's eruption in 1991 had been followed by a La Niña rather than an El Niño?

If there had been a La Niña rather than an El Niño in 1991-92, would the sulfur aerosol veil caused by the release of 17-20 megatons of sulfur dioxide during the Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 have ...
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Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
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First to Sail the Jet Stream Around the World

My questions are related to a scenario discussed on Earth Science: A huge (heavier-than-air) kite sailing in and out of the jet streams. The kite: The scenario: The assumptions: Such an airship ...
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CO2's rise up into the atmosphere

CO2 is heavier than air (1.51 while oxygen is 1.1 and nitrogen is 0.97), however when combusted, it will initially rise until it's temperature gets closer to that of air (about 1000 feet), then it ...
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Urgent, Please help, where can I find worldwide standards of manganese mining?

Hi everybody who sees this post, I need urgent help for finding all official world wide standarts of the manganese mining. Problem is that, many houses has been damaged in my village with manganese ...
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Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to use for the Earth for humans and animals?
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what elevation is top of southeastern US summer humidity/haze layer?

We're interested in purchasing a vacation lake house in the piedmont/foothills of North Carolina. In earlier summers there, when driving from the mountains home to lower (sub-1000ft) elevations, I've ...
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Can a Humidity Differential move PM2.5 Pollution?

Observations There is a higher level of PM2.5 pollution outside of the house. Readings are in the 80-150 range due to wildfires. (PM2.5 levels determined by sensors in PurpleAir.com's sensor network) ...
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How to estimate the settling time of atmospheric particulates as a function of aerodynamic size?

Understanding the behavior of particulates in the atmosphere is important for modeling climate, weather and public health. They can be nucleation sites for rain, fog and smog, they can have thermal ...
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What are Atmospheric Rossby Waves and how do they affect the weather?

I've been researching Atmospheric Rossby waves but from the multiple sources I used they all seem to be in conflict. Some say Rossby waves are parcels of air moving from east to west due to the ...
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Temperature change in Earth atmosphere models?

NASA's page about Earth atmosphere models gives a weird equation about temperature change in different atmospheric layers. One of the formulas looks like this: Can someone explain to me what this ...
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Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
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Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
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How to download FLDAS data from earth data

I am trying to download transpiration and snow cover data from earth data but unable to figure out how to do that
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How do I calculate Per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I need to find the per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions for Canada in 2010 (expressed in kg/day). I know that Canada had $\ce{CO2}$ emissions of 0.55 (Gt) and a population of 34 million in 2010. I am just ...
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Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya

I have two questions based on the history of atmospheric oxygen levels depicted below. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2.png. The notes below the chart explain ...
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Why was the sky SO yellow?

Today, I was coming back from music school, and it was raining heavily. An hour after I came back, the sun started coming out from one side, and the sky wa very brighr yellow. The lighting effects ...
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Doesn't Increase of Potential Temperature with Height contradict Adiabatic Nature of Processes within Troposphere?

I refer to this question, I asked recently in the physics board: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/578308/doesnt-increase-of-potential-temperature-with-height-contradict-adiabatic-natur It ...
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Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from?

This figure from Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Earth shows a hydrogen fraction of 0.000055 percent by volume. Question: Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from? Does this come directly ...
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How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
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Is oxygen spread equally on Earth's surface?

We know that oxygen comes from trees and plants (photosynthesis), so in the jungle where there are a lot of trees you would expect more oxygen than in the desert where there are no trees. Walking in ...
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How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
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ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
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Why is the creation of water from the combustion of hydrocarbons not listed as a cause for rising sea levels?

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8390 According to this paper, water is created by burning hydrocarbon fuels. It seems like a major thing to exclude from "reasons the sea ...
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Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...
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Does evaporated hand sanitizer pollute the environment?

With all the COVID-19 stuff going on, I feel the usage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has increased many fold. I wonder what happens to all that evaporated alcohol in the atmosphere. How soon does ...
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The effect of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia

What was the total damage of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia?
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How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM?

How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM? Assuming that covid-19 (0.12μm diameter) particles have the aerodynamic properties of a gas: Particles < 20 μm behave same ...
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What keeps the different gases mixed in the atmosphere?

Consider a gas centrifuge holding two different gases. After spinning for a while, the heavier gas will move to the outside, and the lighter gas will be on the inside. In other words, we have ...
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Is the lack of aerosols increasing temperatures in 2020?

2020 is predicted to be an unusually warm year and we are already seeing a lot of unusual temperatures. I was wondering, how much of an impact the reduction of aerosol emission from the global ...
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Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...

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