Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Why is the creation of water from the combustion of hydrocarbons not listed as a cause for rising sea levels?

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8390 According to this paper, water is created by burning hydrocarbon fuels. It seems like a major thing to exclude from "reasons the sea ...
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Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...
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Why was the sky SO yellow?

Today, I was coming back from music school, and it was raining heavily. An hour after I came back, the sun started coming out from one side, and the sky wa very brighr yellow. The lighting effects ...
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Does evaporated hand sanitizer pollute the environment?

With all the COVID-19 stuff going on, I feel the usage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has increased many fold. I wonder what happens to all that evaporated alcohol in the atmosphere. How soon does ...
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The effect of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia

What was the total damage of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia?
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How many mole of oxygen gas is there in the atmosphere?

At standard conditions, one liter of air, 0.21 L of oxygen gas, contains 0.0094 moles of $\rm O_2$. What is the total quantity of oxygen gas molecules in the atmosphere?
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How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM?

How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM? Assuming that covid-19 (0.12μm diameter) particles have the aerodynamic properties of a gas: Particles < 20 μm behave same ...
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What keeps the different gases mixed in the atmosphere?

Consider a gas centrifuge holding two different gases. After spinning for a while, the heavier gas will move to the outside, and the lighter gas will be on the inside. In other words, we have ...
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Is the lack of aerosols increasing temperatures in 2020?

2020 is predicted to be an unusually warm year and we are already seeing a lot of unusual temperatures. I was wondering, how much of an impact the reduction of aerosol emission from the global ...
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Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
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Gamma vs Pearson distribution for Standardized Precipitation Index

What is the difference between Pearson and Gamma distribution and the impact of using one of these in the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)? Thank you!
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Relation between molecular mass and retention of a gas on a planet

An Introduction to Our Dynamic Planet under section 2.4 "The origins of the atmosphere and hydrosphere"(Page 80) says on the topic of gases escaping from our atmosphere as: Different gases ...
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Is Earth's atmosphere 1600 km thick?

Some textbooks say that atmosphere extends up to 1600 km, but exosphere is more than 9000 km thick. Where is the mistake?
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Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...
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Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
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Why don't dewdrops form on a cloudy night?

The reason behind the non- formation of dewdrops on a cloudy night is the non-attainment of below dew point temperatures. It happens as the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is not allowed to escape ...
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What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
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If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
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Where did all the CO₂ come from that was deposited as coal during the Carboniferous?

During the Carboniferous, vast deposits of coal (or peat at that time) were created because – as far as I understand – decomposition of wood (white rot?) was not yet "invented" at that time. This ...
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What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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USA and UK government report on plane emissions: 200% difference… which is right?

The report's respective ratio of 1 passenger car vs one long haul plane are 40% versus 110%: Image 1 (DEFRA): car = 171 plane = 195 (110%) Image 2 (EPA): car = 4096 plane = 1760 (40%) If the ...
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Why is the mass of atmosphere of Venus so much greater than that of the Earth?

Earth and Venus have a very similar gravity, but the mass of atmosphere on Venus is much greater (according to this wikipedia article 93 times larger). I know that the chemical composition and ...
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Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
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What causes this arc in the night sky where the background is brighter on one side than the other?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
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Earth-like conditions on Titan: is it feasible that Titan once had seas and lakes of liquid water?

Given that: 1) Four billion years ago Saturn was hotter and radiated strongly in the infra-red. . . . . . . . . . 2) Like Earth's moon, Titan was then closer to its planet. . . . . . . . . . 3) Like ...
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How to distinguish between Altocumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulus clouds?

There are four different categories of clouds. High clouds, medium altitude clouds, lower clouds, and vertical tall clouds. They are broken down into ten genuses of clouds: Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, ...
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Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level

Sentinel-5P satellite provides high-resolution data products on concentration levels for several atmospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, O3 , and others), which are measured in mol/m2 within the total or ...
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How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
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Why isn't $\ce{H2O}$ evenly distributed in Earth's atmosphere?

I frequently read $\ce{CO2}$ have a spatially constant concentration sadly rising and at 415ppm at present. That concentration do not vary a lot spatially I think. You will find ~415ppm at Argentina ...
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Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

I was curious about how the Earth's overall air pressure has varied over time, and tried to take a look around the internet. However, Google pops up a lot of sites with questionable science proposing ...
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Ocean Acidification - The effect of CO2 concentration on the pH of the ocean [duplicate]

I'm confused about how increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere affects the pH of the ocean. The increase in CO2 concentration means the pH of the ocean will decrease (by several chemical rxns). ...
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Why are atmospheric BrO and ClO important to measure by satellite?

The announcement Arianespace orbits two satellites – JCSAT-17 and GEO-KOMPSAT-2B – to support connectivity and environmental monitoring in Asia mentions GEO-KOMPSAT-2B which hosts the Geostationary ...
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Are atmospheric halogen oxides “supposed to be” in the atmosphere? Where do they come from?

I like to naively think of Earth's natural atmosphere as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, water, carbon dioxide and okay, some nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and again okay, a little hydrogen and methane from ...
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Is Earth getting heavier or lighter?

There is meteoric material falling on the Earth constantly, as well as some protons and other light nuclei from the solar wind as well as from cosmic rays. At the same time Earth's atmosphere looses ...
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How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated?

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated? Specifically, how do we calculate total ion density, total ion temperature and individual major ion densities from I-V Characteristics curve of ...
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vertical integrated moisture flux [duplicate]

Does anyone know how to calculate the vertical integrated moisture flux using NCL or Grads if you share a NCL script I'm very thankful to you.
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Why is there a clear space between the ground and the cloud base?

On Earth there is a clear space between the ground and the cloud base. This phenomenon is not confined to Earth, it's the same on Venus, Mars and Titan (moon of Saturn). Is there a law of physics ...
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How to design an experiment to quantify back radiation from atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$...
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Has Earth's atmosphere lost mass throughout the geological ages due to biological $\small\sf{CO_2}$ fixation?

Stromatolites and other organisms have been storing $\small\sf{CO_2}$ in the form of $\small\sf{CaCO_3}$ throughout the geological ages, forming extensive limestone deposits scattered across Earth's ...
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Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that ...
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Can spraying sulphate particulates in the upper atmosphere to lower Earth's temperature have side effects?

According to Geoengineering treatment stratospheric aerosol injection climate change study Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea ...
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Were there any plans or proposals for “unilateral geoengineering deployments” before this paper was publsihed?

I saw the catchy Phys.org news title Artificially cooling planet 'risky strategy,' new research shows and then looked at the open access article, in Nature Communications (14-Nov-2017 online) Impacts ...
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Why does haze and poor visibility present in stable air?

Haze is not considered to be a cloud or mist, and it also is not fog. What is the ultimate reason that haze and general poor visibility ranges prevail in stable atmospheric conditions? Is the cause ...
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Where did the atmosphere's nitrogen come from? [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia's article Atmosphere of Earth: Outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced [Earth's ...
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Why air do not suffer density stratification of its gaseous components?

The different gases that make up the air have different densities. So, naively, one would expect the heavier gasses to pool in the lower atmosphere and the light ones at the top. I asked myself this ...
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How does composition change if you extend an Earthlike atmosphere 50km below sea level? [closed]

I'm working to design the atmosphere of a fictional planet inspired by Venus (let's call it Cael). Cael's atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is essentially identical to Earth's atmosphere at sea ...

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