Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Why does the absence of diabatic heating rate and frictional terms make the zonal and vertical velocity identically zero?

I was reading an article on fluid dynamics of tropical cyclones, where I came across a condition which states that, For adiabatic friction less flow, equations (1) to (5) have a solution, v(r, z),...
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Why air do not suffer density stratification of its gaseous components?

The different gases that make up the air have different densities. So, naively, one would expect the heavier gasses to pool in the lower atmosphere and the light ones at the top. I asked myself this ...
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Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
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minimum mass required for earth to retain its atmosphere?

How would one calculate the minimum mass required for the earth to retain an atmosphere? If we could hypothetically start removing mass from the earth with a star-trek style transporter, how much ...
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What controls the tendency of trace elements in different particle size fractions?

Trace element atmospheric particles are introduced from different sources, with both anthropogenic and natural origins. By analyzing the concentration levels of 18 elements in samples of $PM_{2.5}$ ...
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Why do nearby thunderstorms move in different directions?

The image below from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology shows several thunderstorms in southeast Queensland today and the directions they are expected to move. I'm surprised how different these ...
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Polar Ice caps are melting? Questions on enviromental impact

The polar ice caps are melting at a significant rate partly due to the albedo effect, releasing greenhouse gas-methane into earth’s atmosphere. At the same time we are logging our forests for ...
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Theorist speculate about dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe

Theorist speculate on the dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe. Has any recognized institutions offered a plausible explanation as of now?
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Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. How does this work?

Radioactive rocks can release a gas called radon when they decay, which can build up in the basements of buildings with serious effects on people's health. Does anybody have information on how radon ...
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Was the “'Bama Boom” even recorded by infrasound or by seismic detectors?

The 'Bama Boom ('Bama is short for the US state of Alabama) is a term for some audible "booms" heard by many people in Alabama and now in Colorado. See for example the Popular Mechanics article ...
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The factors should be considered to determine one specific pollutant originated from regional transportation?

Ideally, one pollutant (e.g. organic carbon, heavy metals, sulfate) should be the mixed result of local emissions and regional transportation. To quantify the contribution of local emissions is of ...
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Were there any plans or proposals for “unilateral geoengineering deployments” before this paper was publsihed?

I saw the catchy Phys.org news title Artificially cooling planet 'risky strategy,' new research shows and then looked at the open access article, in Nature Communications (14-Nov-2017 online) Impacts ...
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How Can Smog in Metropolitan Cities like Delhi & Beijing Be Reduced?

These two cities are facing the worst smog in Asia and I think in the world and people of these cities have no choice other than to wear masks when going outside. ...
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What control the atmospheric lifetime of different metals in aerosols?

Background I'm analysing the metallic elements in $PM_{2.5}$ to identify their possible anthropogenic sources for the study area. A total of 19 metallic elements were investigated including dust-...
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Earths rotation

The Earth's atmosphere rotates along with the Earth. At what altitude does the atmosphere cease to rotate along with the Earth? Is it the altitude at which Gravity has no effect? Forgive me if it is a ...
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How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
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What was the density and composition of Earth's atmosphere during the Cretaceous warmest period?

There was time during the age of dinosaurs when the polar regions were ice free. The earth was obviously much warmer but a run-away greenhouse effect did not occur. This was most likely because the ...
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Why was the sky SO yellow?

Today, I was coming back from music school, and it was raining heavily. An hour after I came back, the sun started coming out from one side, and the sky wa very brighr yellow. The lighting effects ...
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Is this an accurate simulation of a further south Australia with a filled lake Eyre?

I created this climate map based on a simplified Koppen Climate Classification map (shown below). In this scenario Australia is moved 10 degrees of latitude further south and the Lake Eyre basin is ...
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Where does water vapor go/what does the sun do?

For instance, coastal areas are often foggy in the morning. Then the sun “burns it off”. Where does the moisture go? I’m curious of the star’s (i.e. Sun) influence on evaporation effects.
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How different can microclimates be than their surrounding areas?

How much different in temperature and pressure can a microclimate be than the surrounding region? In other words, if you had a dry region but then a valley within a ring of mountains that isolated ...
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Centrifugal Force in the Navier Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that diagnose wind speed and direction. They are (approximately) expressed as $$\frac{d\vec{u}}{dt}=-\frac{1}{\rho}\nabla P+f\...
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Prevailing winds between 30 to 60 degrees latitude [duplicate]

Prevailing winds are generated by Coriolis effects. I think I understand why NE winds are the prevailing winds in 0 to 30 degrees and 60 to 90 degrees latitude in the northern hemisphere (e.g., ...
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What makes up a gradient [closed]

My question is a two part question. First I currently know of two different gradients.I think there is more; however, I don't completely understand what makes a gradient. So, here is my questions. ...
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Do solar storms affect Earth's weather?

Solar storms have a direct effect on Earth, creating charged particles. What are the direct and indirect effects of large solar storms on Earth's atmosphere? Do solar storms affect Earth's weather?
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Could a firestorm create a hurricane-like cyclone?

Mesocyclones form when air rises and rotates in a "pillar" of sorts. It's sometimes associated with thunderclouds and tornado formation. A certain kind of cumulonimbus, the cumulonimbus flammagenitus,...
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Why were both the sun and the moon red today?

Today was a normal day, except the sun and moon colors were strange. After 5pm, the sky was covered with cirrostratus-like translucent clouds and the sky was a blend of blue and grey. Everything ...
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Is there a reconstruction of paleoclimate sea level air pressure?

In paleoclimateology graphs of both temperature and atmospheric composition versus time are common. Where can I find a reconstruction of sea surface pressure versus time? I have found one paper that ...
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How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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Is the impact of carbon emision dependent on the location on the earth?

While I was reading how the EU taxes aviation companies based on carbon emissions it occurred to me that the effect of carbon emissions on global temperature etc. may depend on where the carbon is ...
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How much atmoshphere is there compared to land and water

We know our earth has 71% water and 29% land, but compared to that land and water, how much air do we have in our atmosphere? I mean: How big is our atmosphere Is there any increase or decrease in ...
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Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?

How is it possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Measurements if it is placed above the most important earth thermal plume that is heating the ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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Pileus / velum & altocumulus / altostratus - classification problems

I have a lot of free time and often observe and take photos of the sky. Along with that, I always try to figure out what exactly I saw. I think that I have the basic understanding of clouds and cloud ...
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Plotting wind barbs in python (no U,V component)

I've got 4 different .txt files for longitude, latitude, wind speed and wind direction (so no U and V components of the wind). Is there any way to plot wind barbs from such a dataset?
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Is there an atmospheric data database somewhere on the web?

For a personal project, i wanted to develop a global atmospheric database, to compile data like wind speed and direction, temperature, etc. from different sources. My question is this : Does such a ...
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What are 'sulphate particles' in the context of atmospheric chemistry?

This informative answer describes some processes in atmospheric chemistry and mentions "sulphate particles". Actually I realize that I don't know what a 'sulphate particle' really is, though I've ...
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How do we calculate if a meteoroid will completely burn up in the atmosphere?

Most meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere, so they don't impact the Earth's surface. Factors that seem important include: size and mass of the meteoroid angle of meteoroid's path through the ...
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Can the atmosphere affect the composition of igneous rocks?

Recently I was reading 'How to build a habitable planet' by Langmuir and Broecker and in chapter 15 they speak about how Life has led to a difference in oxidation potential in the atmosphere, ...
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What are the Theoretical Limits for Tornado Size and Strength

Is there a theoretical physical limit that we can calculate with regards to Tornado formation? At what size and strength is a hypothetical tornado physically impossible. The largest tornado in ...
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Are there any effects on the atmosphere comparable with ebb and flood of the oceans?

Due to the attraction of our moon (and Sun) our oceans undergo an up and down movement every day. So the water rises or falls by a couple of meters. But does this type of effect also occur with our ...
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Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
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Why do cities at high altitude regions have high atmospheric pressures?

Why do cities at high altitude regions, such as Lhasa, altitude 11995ft (3656 metre), have high atmospheric pressures such as 30.11inHg (101.97 kPa) in the weather report?
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Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
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Are there measurements or calculations that suggest atmospheric ice plates would be horizontal to within 0.1 degrees?

This question describes a recently released explanation for flashes of light seen at the sub-solar point above Earth from the DSCOVR satellite, which is located in a special orbit between the Earth ...
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How can scientists measure chemical composition on other planets?

How can scientists measure chemical composition (oxygen, nitrogen etc) and temperature on other planets without being there?
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How far up do you have to go before most of the atmosphere is below you?

If I wanted to make an air shield around the earth to contain exactly half the planet's atmosphere (by mass), how far above sea level would I have to build it? It's slightly complicated to me because ...
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Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

I was curious about how the Earth's overall air pressure has varied over time, and tried to take a look around the internet. However, Google pops up a lot of sites with questionable science proposing ...
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How do we apply the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to radiative heat transfer from/to CO2 in the atmosphere?

If we can use the Stefan-Boltzman equation to quantify the radiative flux leaving a solid body due to emission of radiation and to do it properly for a solid body we need to include the emissivity ...
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Equation for Atmospheric Pressure Tide

Using Pressure sensors - I found out that there is a daily pressure wave-like pattern with peaks at 9:00 & 21:00 (local time). I want to construct an equation to explain this phenomena, probably ...