Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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How to locally identify a cold front passage?

I know that the passage of a cold front affects local conditions by decreasing the temperature and shifting the winds. Some precipitation could happen as well. How do software that analyze weather ...
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How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated?

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated? Specifically, how do we calculate total ion density, total ion temperature and individual major ion densities from I-V Characteristics curve of ...
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What timescales do eddies operate at in the planetary boundary layer?

What are the largest eddies within the planetary boundary layer? What timescales do the operate on? Edit: I'm talking about atmospheric eddies over land. So, eddies that are measured in [eddy ...
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What affects the surface characteristics of cumulus clouds?

I love looking at clouds. I love trying to describe them and compare what I see day to day. I have dozens of questions about the things I’ve observed and I would really like to understand the physics ...
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Interpolating Merra reanalysis

Merra re-analysis ara available for a coarser horizontal grid with resolution of 0.625 × 0.5 degrees providing differents parameters : Precipitation, Temperature ....This been said, I want to ...
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1answer
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Can atmospheric conditions cause carbonated beverages to fizz more?

For some reason today, carbonated beverages have been fizzing up more than usual. It's happening with beer and club soda. Very strange, no gremlins either - the beer was from the back of the fridge, ...
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189 views

What is the science behind CFCs depleting the ozone layer? [closed]

Specifically, if the daily production of ozone and cfc were at most 400 million and 3k tons, respectively, would each mol of cfc be able to destroy tens of thousands of mols of ozone? All the sources ...
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332 views

What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
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How do current pollution levels in Los Angeles compare to the 1970s?

As I understand it there are two key kinds of air pollution: ozone and fine particles. Are there any long-term data series that chart average ozone levels and/or fine particulates over time going ...
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114 views

Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
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Amount of Earths water with consideration to space travel?

Everyone always says that there has always been, and always will be, the same amount of water on planet Earth. What about space travel? They obviously need water in space, so they must take it up ...
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1answer
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Explanation for single rainbow that contained colors several times

I saw a rainbow outside Silverton, CO last week that for a few minutes seemed to show part of the color cycle (red to purple) several times within the same band. This picture is how it looked to my ...
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479 views

Why are lenticular clouds circular?

I recently visited Japan, where I observed a lenticular cloud above Mount Fuji: Curious by the cloud, I looked it up and found it it's a lenticular cloud, that forms because of rising moist air ...
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Why cannot people burn all the atmospheric oxygen? [closed]

We are told that photosynthesis, developed a couple of billion years ago has produced all the atmospheric oxygen. I wonder, why did the process stop? Why do modern plants prefer to recover the entropy ...
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1answer
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How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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215 views

How to transform the inventory data from degrees to kilometers

First all, my question was different from the question Converting grid resolution from degrees to kilometers. In chemical transport modeling, the pollutant source inventory was an essential input ...
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1answer
115 views

There is soil in Archean? [closed]

Following a mobilista approach over geological time, and considering the Earth's internal heat as responsible for tectonic regime, which was involved in the "Permobile type" during the early times of ...
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2answers
598 views

Is wind just mainly nitrogen particles moving in one direction?

The air is composed of mainly nitrogen. Therefore, when you feel wind, is it mainly nitrogen particles hitting you that, on average, are moving in one direction?
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1answer
197 views

Is it possible that water (H2O) was made on earth?

Most theories suggest that water was already on earth at the beginning but due to temperature most of it evaporated. Others theories suggested that water was brought to earth with komets or asteroids. ...
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1answer
270 views

How does the tornado chaser locate the spot?

In my opinion, tornado is hard to forecast in three different aspects: The size of tornado is about 100 ~ 1000 m which can't be represented well in weather model or detected by limited weather ...
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Buoyancy frequency

The buoyancy frequency, $N$ is defined as $N^2=\frac{gd\theta}{\theta dz}$, where $\theta$ is the potential temperature (I see it as a measure of the deviation from the adiabatic nature), $z$ is the ...
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901 views

What are the composition and pressure of the exosphere?

I've read that the pressure and temperature are different - how different are they, and does that affect the atmosphere's composition?
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213 views

How to remove 'silk braid' noise in satellite data?

Satellite remote sensing data is a powerful tool for researching the spatial distribution and temporal variation of atmospheric species. Aura is one satellite owing to NASA which meaning ...
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1answer
3k views

How to distinguish between Altocumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulus clouds?

There are four different categories of clouds. High clouds, medium altitude clouds, lower clouds, and vertical tall clouds. They are broken down into ten genuses of clouds: Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, ...
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Take all the CO2 in the atmosphere and put it into a layer on the surface of earth, how thick would the layer be?

I teach a Middle School (year 8) Geometry course and have a student attempting to answer this question. My assumptions: earth's radius is $3959 \text{ mi}$ earth is a sphere There is approximately $3 ...
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Sky color of a proterozoic earth with a Canfield ocean

What would the sky color be with a Proterozoic earth during the "Boring Billion" (1.8 By-0.8 By) with a Canfield (Euxinic) ocean and a high atmospheric concentration of colorless hydrogen sulfide and ...
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Why are deserts hotter than other places on Earth

We all know that deserts are the hottest places on Earth, but what makes them different from other parts of the world?
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How rare are double rainbows?

We have all seen rainbows in our lives. But the other day, I saw a double rainbow! How rare are double rainbows and what causes them to appear?
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How long does it take air to circle the world?

I live in New York and I am investing in a carbon offset program in Korea to decommission a coal electricity generation plant. Will I ever breathe the cleaner air as a result of that project? And how ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is WRF most often configured at 3:1 nesting ratio?

In WRF application, nested domain has always been used for weather/air quality modeling for the place of interest in a better resolution. The figure below illustrates this: I have noticed that the ...
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1answer
126 views

Rayleigh scattering from the moon light

If the moon reflects exactly the sun spectrum, then the blue photons part of the spectrum should scatter in the atmosphere during the night (assuming a perfect dark night sky). Why don't we see a ...
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1answer
72 views

Pure blue sky in Spring [closed]

I live in France. Is it true that there are more occurrences of deep blue skies during spring. If yes why ? Is it true also during autumn. Thank you for answering
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1answer
134 views

Maximum temperature possible on earth on a day

What is maximum temperature that can we have on earth on a single day? I assume that after a certain limit, radiation and convection would start working strongly to have equilibrium of surroundings. ...
5
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1answer
3k views

What would the pH of rainwater be if carbon dioxide in the atmosphere doubled?

Natural rain water is slightly acidic (pH = 5.6) since there is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that dissolves to make carbonic acid. What would be the pH of rainwater if carbon dioxide in the ...
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2answers
194 views

Why does computation cost increase 24 times when the spatial resolution doubles?

In a Chinese book, I read about the relationship between the numerical model spatial resolution and the computation cost. It states: when the spatial resolution of model is finer, the result ...
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3answers
256 views

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form?

I already asked this on Astronomy SE but did not receive any answer so far: What are the prerequisites for an ionosphere to form? For example, can a planet without any atmosphere have an ionosphere? ...
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Why snow is white?

Snow is precipitation in the form of flakes of crystalline water ice that falls from clouds. Why is it not another colour?
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198 views

Data source of the planetary boundary layer (PBL)

PBL is one key physical quantities aimed at analysing the condition of air pollution in an area of interest. From WRF simulation, I can get the variable PBLH whixh ...
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1answer
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How did Earth's atmospheric layers get their names?

How are atmospheric layers named once they have been discovered?
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1answer
331 views

The difference of vertical advection and convection process for chemistry species

In atmospheric, the change of mixing ration $C_i$ of a chemical species $i$ is determined by: $\frac{\partial C_i }{\partial t} = -\bigtriangledown (VC_i)+\frac{\partial }{\partial z}(k_z\...
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1answer
2k views

Calculate precipitation from WRF model output

From WRF output file, I find 3 variables related to the precipitation (unit: mm) 1. Precipitation variable name: pr unit:$kg/(m^{2}s^1)$ variable: RAINC+RAINNC comments: $dt(...
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1answer
323 views

Global warming cycles

Everyone is saying we are in a global warming, an unnatural one at that because of CO2. Has there ever been a 'global warming' in Earth's history? I know that global cooling is cyclical and 'looks' ...
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1answer
109 views

How to write 'number of …' in a unit?

Q: Which unit is attached to 'number of particles per volume' (e.g. of the atmosphere)? The questions focuses on the 'number of' and not on the 'volume'. The units [#/m3], [particles/m3] and [1/m3] ...
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Technique to delete spin-up frames from WRF

I'm a user of WRF V3.5 aiming at meteorological simulation. Sometimes, I'll run the model for a long period. My attempt I split the long period(e.g 1 year) into serval short ones. For ...
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1answer
3k views

How to calculate the temperature of Earth's surface

From a dissertation, I read about the greenhouse gas's effect which make the surface warmer. It says, I quote: The greenhouse effect results in an average surface temperature of approx. $14^\...
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Pasquill-Gifford stability class data for one station

On my project, Stability classes is an useful tool to analysis the weather condition for one place. Using R Package Worldmet, I can get the hourly weather ...
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2answers
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Is oxygen the most abundant element on Earth?

When I was in school, I was taught that we need oxygen to breathe, but it actually constitutes only a small fraction of the atmospheric composition, and that nitrogen constituted the largest fraction ...
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1answer
112 views

Is there a formula for heat retained by an atmosphere, based on density and composition?

I'm looking for a formula, either precise or an approximation (it's for a video game so it's ok to have somewhat rough numbers), that determines heat retained from the sun by an atmosphere, based on ...
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Dry deposition of the total sulfate deposition in forested region

Sulfate is one important inorganic aerosol in the atmosphere. It's subject to removal by two main mechanisms. Wet deposition which include rain/wash-out and cloud deposition. Dry deposition ...
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How to convert eta level to pressure level in WRF model

I am working WRF outputl file and require to extract wind and temp values at 850 hPa, 700 hPa and 500 hPa pressure levels. As the WRF vertical coordinates are based on eta level, I am having trouble ...