Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
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How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
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What is the smallest grid spacing that Eulerian air quality models should use?

The University of Washington runs the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then tests the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from ...
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Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that it ...
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Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
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How much heat do hurricanes transport from equatorial to more polar latitudes, and from ocean to atmosphere?

And how much does this heat compare with the total fraction of heat otherwise transported from equatorial to polar latitudes, and from ocean to atmosphere?
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How will climate change affect the total kinetic energy in the atmosphere?

In particular, how it will affect the eddy and zonal components of kinetic energy in the atmosphere? (I'm also curious about potential energy, though that could come in another question)
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Is the troposphere expanding?

If the Earth's atmosphere is warming it has to expand. Can we measure an increasing thickness of the troposphere?
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What exactly causes this moving orange glow before sunrise?

I've been watching twilights for some time, and noticed that each time there's a very clear sky, an orange-pinkish glow is visible at the solar azimuth when Sun is somewhere between 1° and 5.5° below ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
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regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
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Was the "'Bama Boom" even recorded by infrasound or by seismic detectors?

The 'Bama Boom ('Bama is short for the US state of Alabama) is a term for some audible "booms" heard by many people in Alabama and now in Colorado. See for example the Popular Mechanics article ...
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Is there a reconstruction of paleoclimate sea level air pressure?

In paleoclimateology graphs of both temperature and atmospheric composition versus time are common. Where can I find a reconstruction of sea surface pressure versus time? I have found one paper that ...
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Dig in the rationality of model evaluation of WRF with land-based station data

I use WRF (Weather research and forecasting) model for in regional scale meteorology simulation. And then, the WRF output files will be deemed as criterial input data applying for chemical transport ...
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What is the strongest observed static stability in the troposphere?

I know that typical values for the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, $N$, are of the order $10^{-2} \mathrm{s}^{-1}$, but what is the strongest observed stability? And how deep are such strong layers? I am ...
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Relationship between obliquity, antarctic circumpolar current, and atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$

Hannah's text on the biology of climate change appears to suggest that forcing due to changes in obliquity can act in opposite ways in Antarctic waters. On one hand, "Low obliquity brings cool ...
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What would the climate be like on an Earth-like planet if it had only one convection cell per hemisphere?

Earth has three convection cells per hemisphere. These are the Polar cell, Ferrel cell and Hadley cell. These create the trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies which control many aspects of ...
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Does the time-lagged correlation between $\ce{CO2}$ and ocean temperature have a shorter timelag than the one between $\ce{CO2}$ and air temperature?

I'm talking about evidence from both proxy records in the last 50,000 years (if possible) and the recent past (if also possible)
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Retrieve surface values in hybrid sigma cordinate system

I need to retrieve surface values of a parameter in high mountainous region that are in hybrid sigma coordinate system. From what I have understood, hybrid sigma coordinate has three layers in the ...
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Range of frequencies of the Schumann resonance?

Crossposted at Physics SE As the surface-ionospheric gap acts as a resonator for electromagnetic waves, it should have several harmonic values from the base, fundamental frequency of 7.83 Hz. These ...
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Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
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What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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Does airglow intensity systematically change during the night?

Airglow is caused, among other factors, by recombination of atoms ionized during the day. This makes me think that during the night concentration of these ions should reduce, lowering intensity of ...
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How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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minimum mass required for earth to retain its atmosphere?

How would one calculate the minimum mass required for the earth to retain an atmosphere? If we could hypothetically start removing mass from the earth with a star-trek style transporter, how much ...
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How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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What are 'sulphate particles' in the context of atmospheric chemistry?

This informative answer describes some processes in atmospheric chemistry and mentions "sulphate particles". Actually I realize that I don't know what a 'sulphate particle' really is, though I've ...
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What are the Theoretical Limits for Tornado Size and Strength

Is there a theoretical physical limit that we can calculate with regards to Tornado formation? At what size and strength is a hypothetical tornado physically impossible. The largest tornado in ...
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Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
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What timescales do eddies operate at in the planetary boundary layer?

What are the largest eddies within the planetary boundary layer? What timescales do the operate on? Edit: I'm talking about atmospheric eddies over land. So, eddies that are measured in [eddy ...
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How to transform the inventory data from degrees to kilometers

First all, my question was different from the question Converting grid resolution from degrees to kilometers. In chemical transport modeling, the pollutant source inventory was an essential input ...
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Weekly atmospheric or oceanic oscillation within Arctic region

I'm in the middle of writing my Master's thesis. I've analyzed Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) signals derived from observations by the GRACE satellites.These observations are able to reproduce sub-...
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Has Earth's atmosphere lost mass throughout the geological ages due to biological $\small\sf{CO_2}$ fixation?

Stromatolites and other organisms have been storing $\small\sf{CO_2}$ in the form of $\small\sf{CaCO_3}$ throughout the geological ages, forming extensive limestone deposits scattered across Earth's ...
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Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
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Why does hydrodynamic escape not change isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere?

One of the means of atmospheric escape is the hydrodynamic escape. I read someplace that this doesn't cause a change in the isotopic ratio of elements in the atmosphere. But if you heat a group of ...
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Is there any measured atmospheric temperature profile made public?

I'm looking for a temperature-with-altitude measurement by a sounding rocket having gone through the tropo, strato- and mesosphere, have any such results been published after temperatures were ...
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How to convert $\ce{NO2}$ mixing ratio (ppmv) into $\ce{NO2}$ column density(moles/m2)?

I have a WRF-chem output with NO2 mixing ratio for 37 levels, for my analysis I need to convert it into into column density. How do I do that?
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2 answers
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Is it natural for clouds to flow near the surface?

A week ago, I have seen something that I have never seen before, Nah it's not a flying dragon, but clouds that were flowing so near my roof (about 5-6 meters above my roof). These are the pictures, I ...
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What is the maximum size that a drop of rainwater can reach?

This USGS article: "Raindrops are Different Sizes" assures: We can call the growing droplet a raindrop as soon as it reaches the size of 0.5mm in diameter or bigger. If it gets any larger ...
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what elevation is top of southeastern US summer humidity/haze layer?

We're interested in purchasing a vacation lake house in the piedmont/foothills of North Carolina. In earlier summers there, when driving from the mountains home to lower (sub-1000ft) elevations, I've ...
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Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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The factors should be considered to determine one specific pollutant originated from regional transportation?

Ideally, one pollutant (e.g. organic carbon, heavy metals, sulfate) should be the mixed result of local emissions and regional transportation. To quantify the contribution of local emissions is of ...
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Equation for Atmospheric Pressure Tide

Using Pressure sensors - I found out that there is a daily pressure wave-like pattern with peaks at 9:00 & 21:00 (local time). I want to construct an equation to explain this phenomena, probably ...
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Pasquill-Gifford stability class data for one station

On my project, Stability classes is an useful tool to analysis the weather condition for one place. Using R Package Worldmet, I can get the hourly weather ...
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How to convert eta level to pressure level in WRF model

I am working WRF outputl file and require to extract wind and temp values at 850 hPa, 700 hPa and 500 hPa pressure levels. As the WRF vertical coordinates are based on eta level, I am having trouble ...
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Is the number of high/low pressure regions different at low pressure levels at high pressure levels?

Is there a higher number of mid-latitude high/low pressure regions at 850 mb, as compared to the number of high/low pressure regions at 200 mb? And if so, why?
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How does the lack of data about the Mesosphere affect our predictive knowledge of the atmosphere?

Out of all the layers of the Earth's atmosphere the Mesosphere is the hardest to collect data and experiment on, due to it's density being too much for satellites and too little for aircraft or ...
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