Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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26
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4answers
3k views

What is the steepest surface that can hold snow?

I know it depends on the type of snow (dry or wet) and the rougness of the surface. I'm looking for an approximate rule of thumb answer. Assuming a reasonably smooth surface, at what angle it's likely ...
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How does the lack of data about the Mesosphere affect our predictive knowledge of the atmosphere?

Out of all the layers of the Earth's atmosphere the Mesosphere is the hardest to collect data and experiment on, due to it's density being too much for satellites and too little for aircraft or ...
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What are the reaction mechanisms for singlet oxygen in the atmosphere?

Just as the production cycles of Ozone are dependent on the incident falling ultraviolet light and is fairly complex, I was wondering what the process of the production of singlet oxygen in the ...
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Is there any measured atmospheric temperature profile made public?

I'm looking for a temperature-with-altitude measurement by a sounding rocket having gone through the tropo, strato- and mesosphere, have any such results been published after temperatures were ...
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When will the Earth lose its magnetic field?

Mars lost its magnetic field 4.5 billion years ago according to this article: Mars lost its global magnetic field during the time of this heightened activity. After 500 million years, the Martian ...
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Why is the isothermal layer being considered a part of the stratosphere rather than the troposphere or being an independent layer?

At altitudes from 12-20 km (7-12.5 mi) above the midlatitudes the temperature remains constant with altitude (minus 56.5°C in the ISA). This part is usually considered to be in the stratosphere, but ...
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Creating composite dropsonde profiles?

I am working with 13 dropsonde profiles that were launched during a field program. I have been attempting to create composite profiles of them using python, but I am a bit stuck. Here are the issues ...
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Could increased $\ce{CO2}$ levels be a contributing factor why dinosaurs grew so big?

Is it possible that increased CO2 levels during the larger dinosaurs era is a major factor in why dinosaurs grew so big during this period? And extrapolating this question, is it possible that the ...
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What layers of the atmosphere are divided in this image by abrupt borders?

In the image of Earth from a 100,000 ft on this site you can see abruptly divided layers of the atmosphere in different shades of blue. What are they, why do they have different shades and why can't ...
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What is the atmospheric percentage of oxygen produced by trees and phytoplankton every year?

I know that every year carbon sinks remove ~20Gt of CO2 (about half of our emissions), and release a comparable amount of O2 , But I want to know how much O2 the carbon sinks produce annually ...
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Could climate change make air unbreathable? [duplicate]

A lot of the press discussion, IPCC information and scientific inquiry about climate change refers to changes in the temperature of the atmosphere. I have not seen debates about changes in the ...
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Is volume of air increasing as CO2 levels increase?

CO2 levels are increasing, they have crossed 400 ppm, which means that of every million gas molecules in the air, 400 are of CO2. It has been increasing. Does that mean the total volume of air in the ...
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1answer
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Does carbon dioxide preferentially accumulate in one layer of the atmosphere?

Just as Ozone concentration peaks at around 20 km in the stratosphere, having a distribution around higher and lowers layers of the atmosphere, does the same happen for carbon dioxide or other ...
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1answer
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Gases descending from atmospheres

Earth’s lower atmosphere is rising due to climate change Temperature is the driving force behind this change, says Jane Liu, an environmental scientist at the University of Toronto. The troposphere ...
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How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
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Range of frequencies of the Schumann resonance?

Crossposted at Physics SE As the surface-ionospheric gap acts as a resonator for electromagnetic waves, it should have several harmonic values from the base, fundamental frequency of 7.83 Hz. These ...
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How to convert $\ce{NO2}$ mixing ratio (ppmv) into $\ce{NO2}$ column density(moles/m2)?

I have a WRF-chem output with NO2 mixing ratio for 37 levels, for my analysis I need to convert it into into column density. How do I do that?
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What causes a rainbow, its colours and its shape?

What is the cause of rainbows? Do they appear due to rainfall or any other natural phenomenon. What makes it form a semi-circle in the atmosphere and its colours?
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Is it natural for clouds to flow near the surface?

A week ago, I have seen something that I have never seen before, Nah it's not a flying dragon, but clouds that were flowing so near my roof (about 5-6 meters above my roof). These are the pictures, I ...
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How does atmospheric pressure remains constant even though we have released 43 billion tons of $\ce{CO2}$ in one year?

I've heard that the concentration of CO2 has been increased in the air. It should have increased atmospheric pressure, right?
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1answer
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What causes these periodic high-pressure blobs along the west coast of South America?

I was looking through the Weatherbug atmospheric pressure map around 8:30 am ET on Oct 26 2021, and noticed this chain of small high pressure blobs along the west coast of South America. It was also ...
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First to Sail the Jet Stream Around the World

My questions are related to a scenario discussed on Earth Science: A huge (heavier-than-air) kite sailing in and out of the jet streams. The kite: The scenario: The assumptions: Such an airship ...
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How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
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1answer
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Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
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Is oxygen spread equally on Earth's surface?

We know that oxygen comes from trees and plants (photosynthesis), so in the jungle where there are a lot of trees you would expect more oxygen than in the desert where there are no trees. Walking in ...
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How hot the earth will be if we have 20% CO2 in the atmosphere instead of ~0.04? and how cold would it be if doesn't have any CO2?

I know Earth once had this amount in the past, but if we got the former atmosphere with around 20% of CO2, how much the temperature will rise? assuming the atmosphere is still dominated by 78% ...
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What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
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How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

I am using the CAMS model output data to figure out the ground level ozone at a particular place. It is given in mass mixing ratio, and I want to convert to parts per billion volume mixing ratio (...
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Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
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On the light difference between morning and afternoon

It is long time that I am looking for what physical reason(s) explains this observation: the sun ambient light between sunrise and midday is crispy, somehow whiter than that of the afternoon hours. ...
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Why are red auroras rare? Why do oxygen atoms (not oxygen molecules) cause auroras while molecular nitrogen cause auroras instead of atomic nitrogen?

Firstly, since there are a lot of oxygen atoms at a height of 200km, and less energy is needed to produce a red aurora than a green aurora, so it should be easier to produce red auroras than green ...
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What exactly causes this moving orange glow before sunrise?

I've been watching twilights for some time, and noticed that each time there's a very clear sky, an orange-pinkish glow is visible at the solar azimuth when Sun is somewhere between 1° and 5.5° below ...
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What is the difference between roughness length and zero plane displacement?

Both roughness length $z_0$ and zero plane displacement $d$ seemed to be defined as the height above the ground at which wind speed theoretically becomes zero. But wind speed is also supposed to go to ...
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Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that it ...
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1answer
109 views

How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
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2answers
910 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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1answer
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Is there a publicly accessible resource of video/image footage of the sky over an entire year?

I am looking for videos/image series that show (at least a section of) the (daytime) sky at a given location for a prolonged time (ideally > 1 year). This youtube video is one example of what it ...
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What is the relationship between upper atmosphere phenomena and Schumann resonance?

As this Wikipedia article states in this description “... More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events—sprites, ELVES, jets, and other upper-...
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How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. CO2 for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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When would the earth run out of carbon dioxide without man made climate change?

One of my friends told me quite seriously that Gaia had evolved humans to burn the fossil fuels and thus stop the earth running out of CO2. Leaving aside the obvious nonsense it did raise an ...
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Where does the sky's blueness come from; at what altitudes is it being produced?

Rayleigh scattering (mostly) results in a blue sky (Diffuse_sky_radiation) as seen from Earth's surface. Go up in a plane to cruise altitude and the sky gets noticeably blue-er, and then darker. The ...
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How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
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How do I convert Sentinel-5p / TROPOMI vertical column density to concentration?

I am doing an study on Sentinel-5p TROPOMI images. I would like to convert the data from mole/m2 to μg/m3, for this I know I need the height data of the measurements. I have looked for them and I have ...
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Is the atmosphere becoming thicker?

Is the atmosphere getting more dense with various gases, car pollution (200 million cars just in North America), factory pollution, more water vapor and denser cloud cover? If so could a "thicker" ...
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Why does SNAP let me open some Sentinel-5p products and not others?

Good morning, I am working with Sentinel-5p products, my final thesis is to establish a methodology for processing this type of images, from downloading to the implementation of a colour map with the ...
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1answer
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Why is Venezuela so dry?

I'm trying to understand why the summer (January) precipitations in Venezuela are so low in the central and southern parts of the country as well as in eastern Colombia. The most plausible explanation ...

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