Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
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Where did the atmosphere's nitrogen come from?

According to Wikipedia's article Atmosphere of Earth: Outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced [Earth's ...
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How does composition change if you extend an Earthlike atmosphere 50km below sea level? [closed]

I'm working to design the atmosphere of a fictional planet inspired by Venus (let's call it Cael). Cael's atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is essentially identical to Earth's atmosphere at sea ...
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Why have “ozone-depleting substances” led to a third of all global warming and half of arctic sea ice loss?

According to the Phys.org article "Ozone-depleting substances caused half of late 20th-century Arctic warming, says study" (emphasis added): A study published today in Nature Climate Change by ...
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Could burning all fossil fuels (available on earth) render the atmosphere unbreathable?

What if humanity burns all fossil fuels it can find? Putting the negative effects of climate change aside, would the enormous amount of $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ in the atmosphere eventually make it ...
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Why are isotherms skewed to 45 degrees in the tephigram?

I have studied about tephigrams. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. How is it possible that ...
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Thickening Mars's Atmosphere

if we were to send a mission to mars (unlimited budget WE WISH!) to explore different methods that would enable us to thicken the martian atmosphere, what different types of data should this mission ...
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Do man-made machines take natural Nitrogen out of the atmosphere and in turn cause global warming?

I read in Wikipedia that, "Natural Nitrogen, Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere. Dinitrogen is the most abundant uncombined element in the atmosphere." Do man-made machines destroy the ...
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CO2 behaviour in atmosphere

I have a doubts about how $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ absorbs an re-emits infra red (IR) radiation. Let's imagine an only-$\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ atmosphere. In this case, a large amount of 15 $\small\mathsf{...
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What is the history of atmospheric O₂ concentration?

(This is about O₂, not CO₂) How did the concentration of oxygen change? Over geologic time frames since plants began to produce it, and during the time since the carbon dioxide increase caused by ...
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In a zero carbon future but with increasing energy requirements would Earths oceans continue heating?

We’ve completely obliterated our reliance on carbon based fuels. All our energy comes from renewal resources or even fusion. Our energy requirements continue to rise. Taking this to a deliberately ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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What is the CO2 concentration by altitude and why?

Here is a measurement of CO2 concentration by altitude measured by aircraft:(from Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption) Is this the usual vertical structure of CO2? ...
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Trends in atmospheric CO2

I plotted the atmospheric CO2-concentrations to see trends and wondered especially about the phase around 1600 in the plot which I find very interesting. Etienne Godin already told me some facts in ...
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Does PV=nRT mean that isobars are also isotherms?

Does the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, mean that isobars on a map of surface conditions are also isotherms? Is there a way to intuit isotherms from isobars, and vice versa?
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Reference units for CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and meaning of a slight downward tendancy during the 1600

I discovered here a set of yearly historical atmospherical CO2-concentrations from year 0 - 2014. Since they haven't mentioned which measure they used, I'm not sure whether it is right to talk about ...
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How to understand the sentence below about rapid or fast exchange between vapour and droplet?

I read an article about atmosphere and the article has this sentence: At all events, however, they will cause an exchange of water molecules between the vapour and the droplet. If this exchange ...
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Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
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Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

I was curious about how the Earth's overall air pressure has varied over time, and tried to take a look around the internet. However, Google pops up a lot of sites with questionable science proposing ...
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On the light difference between morning and afternoon

It is long time that I am looking for what physical reason(s) explains this observation: the sun ambient light between sunrise and midday is crispy, somehow whiter than that of the afternoon hours. ...
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What is the fastest the Earth has ever spun?

How fast can the Earth rotate and support life? In prehistoric times, dinosaurs were so massive that archeologists wonder how they were not crushed under their own weight. Could a faster spinning ...
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How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated?

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated? Specifically, how do we calculate total ion density, total ion temperature and individual major ion densities from I-V Characteristics curve of ...
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At what altitude a ballon is no longer pushed by the wind?

In 1960, NASA launched the "Echo 1A" balloon which had amongst its objectives to test the triangulation principle with satellites. I wonder why we don't have more "ballon" satellites for our GPS ...
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Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
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Could this cloud be artificially formed?

This photo was taken at 3000 m above sea level in an open field, during the day.
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Why are weather service atmospheric pressures systematically different from those I measure in Johannesburg?

I live in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg in South Africa. I have noticed while working with synoptic weather charts in geography class that the isobars indicate that Johannesburg should have ...
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How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contribute to radiative forcing?

The CO2 absorption spectrum taken at 200 mmHg partial pressure, beam path length = 10 cm, resolution = 4 cm^-1 shows that light can only travel a couple hundred meters before being completely absorbed ...
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Does rain (temporarily) deplete the surrounding atmosphere of carbon dioxide?

CO2 in the air dissolves into rain water, making them slightly acidic. Is that enough to deplete the surrounding air out of CO2? If yes, how fast does this occur? Is it only with the first drops of ...
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How do 'greenhouse gases' let heat in, but not let it out?

That honestly doesn't make any sense to me. How could heat pass through a gas one way but not the other? Its not like our upper atmostphere has a bunch of doors that can only open one way. To me, that ...
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Why does haze and poor visibility present in stable air?

Haze is not considered to be a cloud or mist, and it also is not fog. What is the ultimate reason that haze and general poor visibility ranges prevail in stable atmospheric conditions? Is the cause ...
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Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
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Why does atmospheric oxygen remain so “constant”? [duplicate]

I've always wondering why the oxygen in the atmosphere remains so perfectly at the level required for air-breathing life. What causes it to remain so perfect? Also, a side question, why aren't their ...
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How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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How do thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential?

In all the explanations of how global electric circuit on Earth works, I've always encountered statements like "thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential" (which is about 250 kV). E.g. here: https:...
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How does this calculate the water transport between crops in the webside?

click->http://gpe.letsgrow.com/ next click->moisture transport In the results of Moist transport through the crop, what is the relationship between crop height and diffusion, air movement, and total ...
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Why is more carbon in the atmosphere good, up to a certain level?

According to Elon Musk, there's "an argument" stating that the current level of carbon in the atmosphere (more than 400 ppm) is better than it was some hundreds of years ago (200 ppm). He even calls ...
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Theorist speculate about dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe

Theorist speculate on the dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe. Has any recognized institutions offered a plausible explanation as of now?
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What might be causing this rainbow-like effect on the ground?

The BBC News article Iceland's Okjokull glacier commemorated with plaque about a dead glacier speaks for itself. However there is a photo in the article that caught my eye. It shows mountains in ...
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How Can Smog in Metropolitan Cities like Delhi & Beijing Be Reduced?

These two cities are facing the worst smog in Asia and I think in the world and people of these cities have no choice other than to wear masks when going outside. ...
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How to Obtain an Accurate Estimate for the Pressure of a Putative H2 and He4 Primordial Atmosphere?

How can we obtain an accurate estimate of the pressure of the hydrogen and helium primordial atmosphere of Earth just after it was formed? I was admonished by a user on Astronomy Stack for saying it ...
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A balloon falling from space?

How long would it take for a store bought rubber balloon filled in space with air to fall from space just outside the atmosphere and touch ground? Would it Pop? Added after comments: Ideally you ...
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Definition of Surface-based atmospheric duct

I am writing a literature review for a project and I have a problem. Namely, I cannot figure out the the condition required for surface-based duct to occur. Literature does not help either. In one of ...
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Why during subsidence inversion, upper layer warms more than lower layer?

Source : weather.gov This is mentioned in the book I have been reading regarding stability in atmosphere. But I am not able to pin point exact reason behind this. "As the layer subsides, it ...
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How would our weather change in the event of a magnetic pole shift?

Every two hundred thousand years or so the magnetic poles flip. Obviously it is not life ending but how would our weather change? How long does the transition take? Is there a map or model to show ...
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Is there conclusive evidence to refute an earlier oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere?

The Great Oxygenation Event (sometimes called the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), as in the journal Nature) occurred around 2.2 to 2.45 billion years ago (Frei et al. 2009). However, in the article A ...