# Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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### How do bull’s eye squalls occur?

The only things I could find on the internet were that they had vortices and are marked by an isolated cloud, for example, in the American Met. Soc. glossary: https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bull%...
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### The total pressure / total mass of earth's atmosphere on geological time scales

In many introductory geology courses, a great deal of time is spent on the historical composition of earth's atmosphere: the great oxygenation event, oxygen maximum during the carboniferous, ups and ...
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### metpy divergence module array indexing error

i am trying to find out moisture divergence using metpy divergence module and i used qu12=q3b*u3b qv12=q3b*v3b HMD12 = mpcalc.divergence(qu12, qv12) here qu12 ,...
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### Why do negative and positive leaders behave differently

Why is it that negative lightning leaders step much more frequently compared to positive leaders Unfortunately,the only paper on it I could find was paywalled: Toward a theory of 'stepped-leaders' in ...
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### What would Earth's atmosphere be like today if life had never existed on it?

I'm also interested in understanding the mechanisms that affect what happens to the various gases in the atmosphere over time. That is, do they get locked away in minerals, stay in the atmosphere, or ...
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### What is the correct velocity to calculate propagation speed of a Rossby Wave?

Rossby Waves have different phase- and group velocities. For a pure zonal wave with wave number k they are $$v_p=\overline u - \frac{\beta}{k^2}$$ $$v_g=\overline u + \frac{\beta}{k^2}$$ So group ...
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### On the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere

The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere is 21 percent, according to NASA.gov. I was trying to make a mathematical calculation about oxygen consumption of humans, when I realised that there is a gap ...
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### How did the Earth cool from a temperature of hundreds-of-degrees, if runaway greenhouse effects also happen?

From this article: the team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) studied what would happen if the greenhouse effect were trapped inside ...
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### With the Earth revolving around the Sun , is there some [invisible] "tail" like Shooting Stars & Comets have?

Shooting Stars & Comets have tails. Here is Example Wiki Image showing Comet with 2 tails : With the Earth revolving around the Sun , is there some [invisible] "tail" like Comets have ? ...
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### What causes the absence of rainfall during dry seasons?

I've learnt that water evaporates from the Earth's surface into the atmosphere. However, during hot/dry seasons, evaporation and transpiration occurs continuously without any sign of rainfall. What ...
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### How can gaseous abundance in ppm be converted to density?

Consider a measurement of the concentration of a gas such as ozone in Earth's atmosphere in pseudo-units of parts-per-million (ppm). What is needed to convert such a measurement to density of the gas? ...
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### Is the atmospheric composition still changing naturally?

Earth's atmosphere has gone through "dramatic" composition changes over millions of years. A well-known example is the Great Oxidation Event. Currently the atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, 21% ...
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### Why is CO₂ abundance in the atmosphere still small?

Given the fact that industries emit about 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide each year just in the US, why is it still such a small part of the atmosphere's composition (0.04%)?
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### What is the climate footprint of burning lignite coal - once you account for the athmosheric cooling effect of sulfur dioxide?

Sulfur oxides have a strong but short lasting athmosheric cooling effect. Vulcanic eruptions provide test of that. Lignite or "brown coal" has a reputaion as a paricularly "dirty" ...
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### Why atmospheric temperature lapse rate doesn't have a discontinuity at 0°C when ice is formed?

When trying to calculate the adiabatic lapse rate of moist air based on known values of basic thermodynamic properties of the constituents (ice, water, vapor,...) I came to the following question: ...
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### Is Luleå's PM10 indicative of poor air quality?

Today (17/04/2023) Luleå in Sweden has one of the lowest air quality values in the world according, to Microsoft's air quality map. Other regions with a similar value are near deserts or large urban ...
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### Why is latent heat of water vapor included in specific enthalpy of moist air?

In a lecture book we read about latent heat of moist air. I would have guessed, that the total specific enthalpy of moist air, comprised of $m_d$ kg of dry air and $m_v$ kg of water vapor is (we have ...
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### Why did the air not heat up in this experiment demonstrating the atmospheric greenhouse effect?

In the paper "Experimental Verification of the Greenhouse Effect" (full version: "Verification of the Greenhouse Effect in the Laboratory", Hermann Harde, Michael Schnell 2022), ...
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### Confusion with thermal wind mechanism

In meteorology, we know that cold air mass sinks while warm air mass rises due to density difference, resulting in higher pressure in cold air mass. This leads to a horizontal pressure gradient from ...
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I want to download Vertical Velocity (Pa/sec) data either in era interim or NCAR data from a website. Please I need the link.
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