Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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CO2's rise up into the atmosphere

CO2 is heavier than air (1.51 while oxygen is 1.1 and nitrogen is 0.97), however when combusted, it will initially rise until it's temperature gets closer to that of air (about 1000 feet), then it ...
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Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
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Can a Humidity Differential move PM2.5 Pollution?

Observations There is a higher level of PM2.5 pollution outside of the house. Readings are in the 80-150 range due to wildfires. (PM2.5 levels determined by sensors in PurpleAir.com's sensor network) ...
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How to estimate the settling time of atmospheric particulates as a function of aerodynamic size?

Understanding the behavior of particulates in the atmosphere is important for modeling climate, weather and public health. They can be nucleation sites for rain, fog and smog, they can have thermal ...
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How to download FLDAS data from earth data

I am trying to download transpiration and snow cover data from earth data but unable to figure out how to do that
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How do I calculate Per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I need to find the per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions for Canada in 2010 (expressed in kg/day). I know that Canada had $\ce{CO2}$ emissions of 0.55 (Gt) and a population of 34 million in 2010. I am just ...
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How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
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Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya

I have two questions based on the history of atmospheric oxygen levels depicted below. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2.png. The notes below the chart explain ...
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Why was the sky SO yellow?

Today, I was coming back from music school, and it was raining heavily. An hour after I came back, the sun started coming out from one side, and the sky wa very brighr yellow. The lighting effects ...
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Doesn't Increase of Potential Temperature with Height contradict Adiabatic Nature of Processes within Troposphere?

I refer to this question, I asked recently in the physics board: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/578308/doesnt-increase-of-potential-temperature-with-height-contradict-adiabatic-natur It ...
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Urgent, Please help, where can I find worldwide standards of manganese mining?

Hi everybody who sees this post, I need urgent help for finding all official world wide standarts of the manganese mining. Problem is that, many houses has been damaged in my village with manganese ...
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Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from?

This figure from Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Earth shows a hydrogen fraction of 0.000055 percent by volume. Question: Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from? Does this come directly ...
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Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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Is oxygen spread equally on Earth's surface?

We know that oxygen comes from trees and plants (photosynthesis), so in the jungle where there are a lot of trees you would expect more oxygen than in the desert where there are no trees. Walking in ...
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How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
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ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
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Why is the mass of atmosphere of Venus so much greater than that of the Earth?

Earth and Venus have a very similar gravity, but the mass of atmosphere on Venus is much greater (according to this wikipedia article 93 times larger). I know that the chemical composition and ...
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Why is the creation of water from the combustion of hydrocarbons not listed as a cause for rising sea levels?

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8390 According to this paper, water is created by burning hydrocarbon fuels. It seems like a major thing to exclude from "reasons the sea ...
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Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...
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Does evaporated hand sanitizer pollute the environment?

With all the COVID-19 stuff going on, I feel the usage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has increased many fold. I wonder what happens to all that evaporated alcohol in the atmosphere. How soon does ...
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The effect of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia

What was the total damage of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia?
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How many mole of oxygen gas is there in the atmosphere?

At standard conditions, one liter of air, 0.21 L of oxygen gas, contains 0.0094 moles of $\rm O_2$. What is the total quantity of oxygen gas molecules in the atmosphere?
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How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM?

How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM? Assuming that covid-19 (0.12μm diameter) particles have the aerodynamic properties of a gas: Particles < 20 μm behave same ...
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What keeps the different gases mixed in the atmosphere?

Consider a gas centrifuge holding two different gases. After spinning for a while, the heavier gas will move to the outside, and the lighter gas will be on the inside. In other words, we have ...
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Is the lack of aerosols increasing temperatures in 2020?

2020 is predicted to be an unusually warm year and we are already seeing a lot of unusual temperatures. I was wondering, how much of an impact the reduction of aerosol emission from the global ...
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Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
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Gamma vs Pearson distribution for Standardized Precipitation Index

What is the difference between Pearson and Gamma distribution and the impact of using one of these in the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)? Thank you!
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Relation between molecular mass and retention of a gas on a planet

An Introduction to Our Dynamic Planet under section 2.4 "The origins of the atmosphere and hydrosphere"(Page 80) says on the topic of gases escaping from our atmosphere as: Different gases ...
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Is Earth's atmosphere 1600 km thick?

Some textbooks say that atmosphere extends up to 1600 km, but exosphere is more than 9000 km thick. Where is the mistake?
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Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...
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Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
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Why don't dewdrops form on a cloudy night?

The reason behind the non- formation of dewdrops on a cloudy night is the non-attainment of below dew point temperatures. It happens as the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is not allowed to escape ...
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What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
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If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
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Where did all the CO₂ come from that was deposited as coal during the Carboniferous?

During the Carboniferous, vast deposits of coal (or peat at that time) were created because – as far as I understand – decomposition of wood (white rot?) was not yet "invented" at that time. This ...
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What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
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USA and UK government report on plane emissions: 200% difference… which is right?

The report's respective ratio of 1 passenger car vs one long haul plane are 40% versus 110%: Image 1 (DEFRA): car = 171 plane = 195 (110%) Image 2 (EPA): car = 4096 plane = 1760 (40%) If the ...
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What causes this arc in the night sky where the background is brighter on one side than the other?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
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Earth-like conditions on Titan: is it feasible that Titan once had seas and lakes of liquid water?

Given that: 1) Four billion years ago Saturn was hotter and radiated strongly in the infra-red. . . . . . . . . . 2) Like Earth's moon, Titan was then closer to its planet. . . . . . . . . . 3) Like ...
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How to distinguish between Altocumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulus clouds?

There are four different categories of clouds. High clouds, medium altitude clouds, lower clouds, and vertical tall clouds. They are broken down into ten genuses of clouds: Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, ...
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Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level

Sentinel-5P satellite provides high-resolution data products on concentration levels for several atmospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, O3 , and others), which are measured in mol/m2 within the total or ...
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How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
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Why isn't $\ce{H2O}$ evenly distributed in Earth's atmosphere?

I frequently read $\ce{CO2}$ have a spatially constant concentration sadly rising and at 415ppm at present. That concentration do not vary a lot spatially I think. You will find ~415ppm at Argentina ...
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Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

I was curious about how the Earth's overall air pressure has varied over time, and tried to take a look around the internet. However, Google pops up a lot of sites with questionable science proposing ...
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Ocean Acidification - The effect of CO2 concentration on the pH of the ocean [duplicate]

I'm confused about how increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere affects the pH of the ocean. The increase in CO2 concentration means the pH of the ocean will decrease (by several chemical rxns). ...

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