Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
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Is there a publicly accessible resource of video/image footage of the sky over an entire year?

I am looking for videos/image series that show (at least a section of) the (daytime) sky at a given location for a prolonged time (ideally > 1 year). This youtube video is one example of what it ...
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What is the relationship between upper atmosphere phenomena and Schumann resonance?

As this Wikipedia article states in this description “... More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events—sprites, ELVES, jets, and other upper-...
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How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. CO2 for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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When would the earth run out of carbon dioxide without man made climate change?

One of my friends told me quite seriously that Gaia had evolved humans to burn the fossil fuels and thus stop the earth running out of CO2. Leaving aside the obvious nonsense it did raise an ...
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Where does the sky's blueness come from; at what altitudes is it being produced?

Rayleigh scattering (mostly) results in a blue sky (Diffuse_sky_radiation) as seen from Earth's surface. Go up in a plane to cruise altitude and the sky gets noticeably blue-er, and then darker. The ...
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How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
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How do I convert Sentinel-5p / TROPOMI vertical column density to concentration?

I am doing an study on Sentinel-5p TROPOMI images. I would like to convert the data from mole/m2 to μg/m3, for this I know I need the height data of the measurements. I have looked for them and I have ...
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Is the atmosphere becoming thicker?

Is the atmosphere getting more dense with various gases, car pollution (200 million cars just in North America), factory pollution, more water vapor and denser cloud cover? If so could a "thicker" ...
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Why does SNAP let me open some Sentinel-5p products and not others?

Good morning, I am working with Sentinel-5p products, my final thesis is to establish a methodology for processing this type of images, from downloading to the implementation of a colour map with the ...
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Why is Venezuela so dry?

I'm trying to understand why the summer (January) precipitations in Venezuela are so low in the central and southern parts of the country as well as in eastern Colombia. The most plausible explanation ...
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What woud happen to me if I touched the aurora?

The Aurora Borealis (commonly known as the northern lights) is a mesmerizing and captivating sight to behold, so beautiful that I just want to touch it and feel it. Should I? Could it harm me?
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Will a country that cares for its environment be affected by climate change due to other countries' pollution?

Let's say my country is very environment conscious, has lots of trees and animals, protects the forest, uses clean/green energy, and has all kinds of environment friendly policies you can imagine. ...
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What is the smallest grid spacing that Eulerian air quality models should use?

The University of Washington runs the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then tests the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from ...
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Can Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus appear at the same time?

I see cirrocumulus fading away in the front and bunch of cirrostratus in the back. However, I was taught that cirrocumulus appear when the upper atmosphere is unstable while cirrostratus appear when ...
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Climate on Venus after it becomes tidally locked

Suppose, Venus becomes tidally locked. Will its dark side cool enough so that the CO2 from atmosphere to precipitate in liquid form to make an ocean?
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Which ocean evaporates the most water per surface area?

I guess the Pacific Ocean evaporates the most water because of its size. But which of the major oceans evaporates the most water per square meter?
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Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
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What makes Eastern Boundary Currents cold?

As far as I am aware, there are two separate processes that cause Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs) to have cold Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs). One is offshore Ekman transport, which leads to coastal ...
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How are we going to handle oxygen shortage problem arising due to massive usage of current fossil fuel combustion and future Hydrogen fuel cell tech?

This question is being redirected from the Chemistry Stack Exchange community. The current corona pandemic has created a situation where in order to save lives, there is a huge huge requirement for ...
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What is the origin of the dominant atmospheric nitrogen content in Earth's atmosphere?

Comparing the atmospheric compositions of Earth with our nearest neighbours: As the table shows, the Earth's atmospheric nitrogen concentration is 78%, compared to 3.8% for Venus and 2.7% for Mars ...
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Have "frosty meteorites" ever been observed soon after landing? Are there photos?

This answer to Would a gold-containing meteor cause it to “rain” gold? says (in part): Meteors, when in space, are very very very very cold. Their travel duration in Earth's atmosphere is very short, ...
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Why (actually) is the night sky so bright in the city? How far up is that happening?

The recent news reported by the New York Times, the BBC and the NPR web sites (for example) as well as in the Iceland Review and Iceland Magazine sites, about the shutting-off of Reykjavik's ...
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What is "small layer thickness" defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In many sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
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What is the maximum size that a drop of rainwater can reach?

This USGS article: "Raindrops are Different Sizes" assures: We can call the growing droplet a raindrop as soon as it reaches the size of 0.5mm in diameter or bigger. If it gets any larger ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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Can clouds be formed without a pollen particle's role?

I read online that it is scientifically proven that pollen particles can trigger cloud formation "is that true"? if true ,does it mean that no clouds can be formed without pollen particles' ...
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When it comes the average lifetime of chemicals in the atmosphere, is the mean lifetime ~1.4427 times the half-life? As with radioactivity?

There are so many websites giving numbers for 'average' lifetimes of global-warming or ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere, yet they are rarely explicit in their definition(s)... For instance, ...
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In cities, is the pollution level higher on higher floors?

Is there a difference between the pollution levels at higher vs lower floors in a high rise building?
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What is the characteristic time of the loss of the Earth atmosphere, how can it be calculated?

Somewhere I've read it is in the order of some tens of billions of years, but unfortunately I can't find any reference with it in Google. I suspect, the losses are coming mainly from analyzing the ...
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How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
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Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
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Why air do not suffer density stratification of its gaseous components?

The different gases that make up the air have different densities. So, naively, one would expect the heavier gasses to pool in the lower atmosphere and the light ones at the top. I asked myself this ...
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Question regarding an ice age caused by impact event(s)

If a hypothetical series of debris were to collide into a planet like Earth, I'm aware that dust could very well be sent into orbit, causing global cooling. If this were to happen, exactly how would ...
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Why is the average 1 Bar temperature on planets with a thick atmosphere proportional to the distance of the sun?

The temperature of a planetary body in space varies with the fourth-root of the power incident upon it, this is derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is understandable when applied to a black ...
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Does rain (temporarily) deplete the surrounding atmosphere of carbon dioxide?

CO2 in the air dissolves into rain water, making them slightly acidic. Is that enough to deplete the surrounding air out of CO2? If yes, how fast does this occur? Is it only with the first drops of ...
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For a tree over its entire existence, does it actually have a net negative effect on atmospheric CO2?

A tree while alive converts CO2 + water -> carbohydrates + O2. However, once the tree dies, it decays, releasing CO2 back into the atmosphere. My question is, over an individual tree's overall ...
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How to derive the total potential energy of the atmosphere?

In one of Lorenz’s paper (I mean the meteorologists Edward Lorenz), he stated that the total potential energy of the whole atmosphere $P + I$ (means the sum of potential energy and internal energy) is ...
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How is carbon distributed among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt fossil fuels?

In relation to my other question about carbon cycle and climate change, i would like to know some estimates of the carbon distribution among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt ...
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Was the "'Bama Boom" even recorded by infrasound or by seismic detectors?

The 'Bama Boom ('Bama is short for the US state of Alabama) is a term for some audible "booms" heard by many people in Alabama and now in Colorado. See for example the Popular Mechanics article ...
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How spatial resolution of a NWP model works?

I would like to know how the resolution of a Numerical Weather Prediction model conceptually works. i.e. "Global Forecast System's forecasts with 0.5° horizontal spatial resolution" "...
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Factor 1000 in mixing ratio formula

I am seeing two different formulas for the mixing ratio, which differ by a factor 1000. To be more specific: $w = 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ and $w = 1000 \cdot 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ where $e$ and $p$ are the ...
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Why is the Earth's shadow blue?

After every sunset, once the sun is gone, I always enjoy seen the belt of venus rising in the other side, followed by the Earth's shadow. This is a picture I took (you will find better ones online). ...
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Correct way to spin-up for sensitivity analysis in a Global Chemical Transport Models

In my understanding, in Global Chemical Transport Models, initial conditions are provided by spinning up the model or through previous simulation. But, can I use the same initial condition that I ...
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How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
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Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...

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