Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
18
votes
2answers
5k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
7
votes
1answer
151 views

Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
4
votes
1answer
492 views

What is the CO2 concentration by altitude and why?

Here is a measurement of CO2 concentration by altitude measured by aircraft:(from Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption) Is this the usual vertical structure of CO2? ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Does airglow intensity systematically change during the night?

Airglow is caused, among other factors, by recombination of atoms ionized during the day. This makes me think that during the night concentration of these ions should reduce, lowering intensity of ...
13
votes
1answer
615 views

How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze? Is there a chart on sea breezes wind speed that include lakes? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze to create a wind vortex in the ...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

How to strong winds cause baroclinic intensification in the upper ocean?

Below is an excerpt from The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Bernt Zeitzschel, Sebastian A. Gerlach The more vigorous atmospheric and oceanic circulation during the SW monsoon causes not only the ...
10
votes
1answer
362 views

Electricity in clouds and induced magnetism

This is well known to everyone that clouds carry electric charges and cumulonimbus clouds contain huge amount of electricity. It is also known from Maxwell's equations that moving particles induce ...
-2
votes
1answer
155 views

Do HAARP-like programs have effects on climate? [closed]

Military powers like USA, Rusia and China have programs to heat through electromagnetic waves the Ionosphere. HAARP supposedly is a research program, but run by part of the military of US (Air Force ...
4
votes
1answer
257 views

Do solar storms affect Earth's weather?

Solar storms have a direct effect on Earth, creating charged particles. What are the direct and indirect effects of large solar storms on Earth's atmosphere? Do solar storms affect Earth's weather?
5
votes
1answer
50 views

Are there any consequences to carbon capture and storage that also sequesters oxygen?

A big argument for carbon capture and storage is true reversal; while switching to renewable energy and eliminating CO2 emissions is a must, it will not reverse the massive movement of carbon from ...
23
votes
5answers
21k views

Is the color of the sky the same everywhere on earth?

Is the color of the sky at noon (local time) in, say, NY, Buenos Aires, London, Nairobi, Sydney, New Delhi and Tokyo the same? I choose the specific time of noon to exclude the twilight colors of the ...
1
vote
0answers
82 views

How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

How much energy is required to hold the earth’s atmosphere up against the forces of gravity?

My understanding is that the earth’s atmosphere was originally formed by the molten earth itself, and the sun was 70% weaker that present. Then as the earth cooled the energy required to keep the ...
6
votes
2answers
621 views

Take all the CO2 in the atmosphere and put it into a layer on the surface of earth, how thick would the layer be?

I teach a Middle School (year 8) Geometry course and have a student attempting to answer this question. My assumptions: earth's radius is $3959 \text{ mi}$ earth is a sphere There is approximately $3 ...
5
votes
1answer
175 views

What would a planet's sky look like with different chemical compositions, such as low nitrogen, high methane etc?

What are the processes, chemicals and particles involved in creating colour in a planet's sky? Could you give some examples of sky colour processes different from what happens on Earth?
2
votes
0answers
26 views

The differences on the atmospheric transportation for various trace metal in atmosphere

I have known that the atmospheric lifetimes of chemical species were highly dependent on their physicochemical properties. For example, $SO_2$ might exist for 5-8 days, while $NO_2$ could only exist ...
5
votes
1answer
123 views

How to predict when contrails are likely to form over a specific location using public data?

I saw the image below used as a click-attractor to an unrelated story about tourism, but found a larger version here. Contrails, or water condensation trails happen when planes pass through the ...
10
votes
3answers
4k views

Why does warm air “hold” more moisture?

It is often explained that warm air holds more water because warmer water is less likely to condense. This and other explanations just seem to be circular arguments. If the warmer air picks up enough ...
6
votes
1answer
121 views

What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
0
votes
3answers
160 views

How to design an experiment to quantify back radiation from atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$...
14
votes
2answers
367 views

How do we measure the total heat content contained in ocean and atmosphere?

This is similar to How is ocean heat content measured?, but here I'm thinking about the total content rather than fluxes in the content between land and ocean.
5
votes
3answers
3k views

Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
7
votes
1answer
154 views

Is there an atmospheric hydrogen cycle?

There are various physical, chemical and biological processes that free up hydrogen from molecules (often hydrocarbons or water). Once in the atmosphere, the hydrogen is lost to space (the Earth's ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Why do tethered aerostats have lower persistence than stratospheric balloons?

We have been thinking of using Aerostats/Balloons for an environmental monitoring project in our university. We have been considering 2 options: Tethered Aerostats (which fly upto 1 km) and ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is the skyline hazy on the Greek islands?

I've recently been to Crete, Santorini and am currently on Ios. I've noticed that there is a hazy-ness when I look out on the sea: there's no definitive line where sky meets sea, they just blur ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Given a 3 box model of the atmosphere,determine fraction of mass transport from lower layer

P = 300mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 375K P = 600mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 325K P = 900mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 350K (surface) Given that a deep convective plume sends a portion of the bottom layer to the ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Given only pressure and potential equivalent temperature, can I determine other variables?

I am given a 3 box model of atmosphere where each layer is 300 mbar thick, and the potential equivalent temperature of each is given (from bottom to top - 350K, 325K, 375K). Am I able to determine ...
15
votes
1answer
680 views

Where do bad smells eventually go?

Suppose that I haven't taken a shower for a while, or haven't disposed of my trash, or something, and the room I've been in now stinks. Then, to remove the smell from the room (presumably after first ...
5
votes
1answer
88 views

Technical term for percentage of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere

I have a theoretical exercise where I calculated the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere per year (4.6 ppm). We assume that the relative increase of CO2 is 2 ppm, hence the percentage of ...
4
votes
0answers
81 views

Do man-made machines take natural Nitrogen out of the atmosphere and in turn cause global warming?

I read in Wikipedia that, "Natural Nitrogen, Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere. Dinitrogen is the most abundant uncombined element in the atmosphere." Do man-made machines destroy the ...
1
vote
0answers
627 views

What are the environmental effects of leaking hydrogen from large-scale energy storage mechanisms?

I recently have calculated the total cost of an energy system that is based on wind power as the primary power source and hydrogen as the energy storage mechanism. The total system costs are ...
6
votes
3answers
286 views

What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form?

I already asked this on Astronomy SE but did not receive any answer so far: What are the prerequisites for an ionosphere to form? For example, can a planet without any atmosphere have an ionosphere? ...
8
votes
2answers
31k views

Is oxygen the most abundant element on Earth?

When I was in school, I was taught that we need oxygen to breathe, but it actually constitutes only a small fraction of the atmospheric composition, and that nitrogen constituted the largest fraction ...
14
votes
0answers
675 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

What were CO2 levels in Carboniferous?

What were CO2 levels in early and late Carboniferous, an what were mean levels? Who are the sources for these figures?
7
votes
1answer
232 views

Difference between sulfuric clouds and sulfuric haze (on Venus)?

In a conversation in comments below this answer to the question in Space Exploration Could we see the surface of Venus after the explosion of a H-bomb in its atmosphere? we're speculating about what ...
16
votes
2answers
13k views

Coriolis effect and Cyclones

The Coriolis force predicts that winds in the northern hemisphere should be deflected in a clockwise pattern and winds in the southern hemisphere should be deflected in an anti-clockwise pattern. Why ...
0
votes
1answer
308 views

Over which surface will the albedo changes due to clear and overcast skies have the greatest impact?

With respect to climate change, will the changes in albedos due to clear skies and overcast skies have the greatest impact on incoming solar radiation over ocean, sea ice, or land? My thoughts: On a ...
7
votes
2answers
88 views

Will a country that cares for its environment be affected by climate change due to other countries' activities?

Let's say my country is very environment conscious, has lots of trees and animals, protects the forest, uses clean/green energy, and has all kinds of environment friendly policies you can imagine. ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Optical Thickness of the Atmosphere

Homework question: Show that the absorption optical thickness of the atmosphere at pressure $p$ (i.e., between $p$ and the top of the atmosphere) as a function of the mixing ratio of the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Clarification: Effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature

This terminology is quite confusing to me. Are effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature the same thing? Where does this occur, at the surface, or at some ...
13
votes
5answers
4k views

How to reduce the atmospheric temperature artificially?

Is there any gas/substance which absorbs/reduces atmospheric temperature? Ozone filters UV rays from the sun light and allows in infrared rays. In my knowledge these infrared rays are the cause of ...
1
vote
1answer
395 views

Ozone layer and radiation absorption

The ozone layer if compressed to a minimum on the earth's surface can absorb infrared radiation. How is it possible that the same molecule can absorb radiation of two different wavelength with ...
10
votes
1answer
237 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

What's the difference between uptake and adsorption of gas into aerosols

In the area of atmospheric chemistry, I have learned that the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 is one of the important pathways for sulfate formation. The reactions of SO2 oxidation in mineral, soot ...
4
votes
0answers
252 views

Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
5
votes
2answers
103 views

Appearing of Weird Cornered Cloud in Sky?

It was about 6'o Clock in the Evening. Suddenly I noticed A wierd Cloud in the middle of the sky. Is there Natural Phenomenon responsible for creating such prefect clouds? & What it is? or ...
8
votes
1answer
191 views

Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

Earth's current average global temperature (i.e. including hot deserts and cold polar caps) is reported be somewhere between 14°C and 16°C (depending on sources and methods). This temperature varies ...
6
votes
1answer
119 views

Why is the upper atmosphere brighter than the lower atmosphere in some photos from space?

In most photos from space, the atmosphere gradually fades away from pretty bright blue to essentially black, as you move away from the Earth surface, such as can be seen in this photo of the Earth ...
5
votes
1answer
8k views

How to calculate residence time for an element in a reservoir?

The residence time for an element in a reservoir can be calculated by the reservoir size at steady state divided by the inflow or outflow rate. Given the following diagram, I need to calculate the ...