Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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1answer
112 views

Reference units for CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and meaning of a slight downward tendancy during the 1600

I discovered here a set of yearly historical atmospherical CO2-concentrations from year 0 - 2014. Since they haven't mentioned which measure they used, I'm not sure whether it is right to talk about ...
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How to understand the sentence below about rapid or fast exchange between vapour and droplet?

I read an article about atmosphere and the article has this sentence: At all events, however, they will cause an exchange of water molecules between the vapour and the droplet. If this exchange ...
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How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
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Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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What is the fastest the Earth has ever spun?

How fast can the Earth rotate and support life? In prehistoric times, dinosaurs were so massive that archeologists wonder how they were not crushed under their own weight. Could a faster spinning ...
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At what altitude a ballon is no longer pushed by the wind?

In 1960, NASA launched the "Echo 1A" balloon which had amongst its objectives to test the triangulation principle with satellites. I wonder why we don't have more "ballon" satellites for our GPS ...
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Could this cloud be artificially formed?

This photo was taken at 3000 m above sea level in an open field, during the day.
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Why are weather service atmospheric pressures systematically different from those I measure in Johannesburg?

I live in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg in South Africa. I have noticed while working with synoptic weather charts in geography class that the isobars indicate that Johannesburg should have ...
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How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contribute to radiative forcing?

The CO2 absorption spectrum taken at 200 mmHg partial pressure, beam path length = 10 cm, resolution = 4 cm^-1 shows that light can only travel a couple hundred meters before being completely absorbed ...
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How do 'greenhouse gases' let heat in, but not let it out?

That honestly doesn't make any sense to me. How could heat pass through a gas one way but not the other? Its not like our upper atmostphere has a bunch of doors that can only open one way. To me, that ...
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Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
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Why does atmospheric oxygen remain so "constant"? [duplicate]

I've always wondering why the oxygen in the atmosphere remains so perfectly at the level required for air-breathing life. What causes it to remain so perfect? Also, a side question, why aren't their ...
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How do thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential?

In all the explanations of how global electric circuit on Earth works, I've always encountered statements like "thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential" (which is about 250 kV). E.g. here: https:...
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How does this calculate the water transport between crops in the webside?

click->http://gpe.letsgrow.com/ next click->moisture transport In the results of Moist transport through the crop, what is the relationship between crop height and diffusion, air movement, and total ...
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Why is more carbon in the atmosphere good, up to a certain level?

According to Elon Musk, there's "an argument" stating that the current level of carbon in the atmosphere (more than 400 ppm) is better than it was some hundreds of years ago (200 ppm). He even calls ...
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Theorist speculate about dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe

Theorist speculate on the dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe. Has any recognized institutions offered a plausible explanation as of now?
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What might be causing this rainbow-like effect on the ground?

The BBC News article Iceland's Okjokull glacier commemorated with plaque about a dead glacier speaks for itself. However there is a photo in the article that caught my eye. It shows mountains in ...
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How Can Smog in Metropolitan Cities like Delhi & Beijing Be Reduced?

These two cities are facing the worst smog in Asia and I think in the world and people of these cities have no choice other than to wear masks when going outside. ...
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A balloon falling from space?

How long would it take for a store bought rubber balloon filled in space with air to fall from space just outside the atmosphere and touch ground? Would it Pop? Added after comments: Ideally you ...
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Definition of Surface-based atmospheric duct

I am writing a literature review for a project and I have a problem. Namely, I cannot figure out the the condition required for surface-based duct to occur. Literature does not help either. In one of ...
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Why during subsidence inversion, upper layer warms more than lower layer?

Source : weather.gov This is mentioned in the book I have been reading regarding stability in atmosphere. But I am not able to pin point exact reason behind this. "As the layer subsides, it ...
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How would our weather change in the event of a magnetic pole shift?

Every two hundred thousand years or so the magnetic poles flip. Obviously it is not life ending but how would our weather change? How long does the transition take? Is there a map or model to show ...
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Is there conclusive evidence to refute an earlier oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere?

The Great Oxygenation Event (sometimes called the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), as in the journal Nature) occurred around 2.2 to 2.45 billion years ago (Frei et al. 2009). However, in the article A ...
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Net fluxes of carbon caused by humans

The current and future amount of carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere is what currently concerns and occupies many people. I am looking for a big picture of ...
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Is this particular multiple rainbow unexplained by science?

The gist of the BBC News article 'Incredibly rare rainbow' photographed in Highlands is that while it has several familiar features, there are aspects that are still unexplained. Question: Are there ...
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Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
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Atmospheric conditions needed that blocks all bright light during sunsets and allows you to stare directly at the sun

Today (July 5th, 2019 just before 8 pm KST), along the Han River in Seoul, the surface of the sun could be viewed with my naked eye (no protection needed), and this was safe on the eyes. It appeared ...
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What is the effect of sea-level changes on the extent of the Earth's atmosphere?

If sea-levels rise, does the Earth's atmosphere extend to the same distance out to space, with the pressure increasing, or does it expand? If sea levels rose 10m, how much change would there be to ...
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Why has CO2 decreased in the history of the Earth?

I noticed that the $\ce{CO2}$ is actually decreasing in the eon time. My guess is lush vegetation or forests began to grow which absorbed the $\ce{CO2}$ by photosynthesis? Would anyone give me any ...
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Why does chlorophyll only come in green? [closed]

Plants do not only come in green but chlorophyll does. The pigment in the plant creates other colored plants other then green. Could a plant grow under an alternative light spectrum like a green sun ...
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How does total pressure affect relative humidity and how do I correct my hygrometer for pressure?

Obviously pressurized air can hold more water than regular air, so an increase in overall pressure would result in an inversely proportional decrease in relative humidity. However, I can't seem to ...
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How and when was the $\mathsf{CO_2}$ scrubbed when Earth was still primordial?

How and when was the $\mathsf{CO_2}$ removed in primordial Earth atmosphere? What is the main mechanism of this removal of $\mathsf{CO_2}$? Is it dissolving in water? Or rock weathering? Or was the ...
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Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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What are 'sulphate particles' in the context of atmospheric chemistry?

This informative answer describes some processes in atmospheric chemistry and mentions "sulphate particles". Actually I realize that I don't know what a 'sulphate particle' really is, though I've ...
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Why is potential vorticity so emphasized in technical work, but often neglected in maps on weather websites?

When I was first introduced to potential vorticity, I was told that it is a very important tool for meteorologists to learn. Sure, it solved a simple problem in dynamics, but it wasn't apparent to me ...
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How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
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Why do some planets have lots of $\mathrm{N_2}$ and others none?

Earth, Titan and Venus all have large amounts of $\mathrm{N_2}$ in their atmospheres. (In the case of Venus it's a small proportion, but Venus' atmosphere is very thick, and the total mass of $\mathrm{...
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How does Earth's heat escape to space?

I know that if the sun stopped shining, Earth would lose it's heat and we'd all freeze and die. On the other hand, we don't keep increasing temperature when the sun shines because heat escapes to ...
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How is the equilibrium of 21% oxygen in Earth's atmosphere established?

The atmosphere is 21% oxygen. I assume that there must be an equilibrium between processes that produce oxygen (e.g. photosynthesis) and those that consume oxygen (e.g. aerobic respiration). Moreover,...
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Centrifugal Force in the Navier Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that diagnose wind speed and direction. They are (approximately) expressed as $$\frac{d\vec{u}}{dt}=-\frac{1}{\rho}\nabla P+f\...
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Why does Earth have abundant oxygen in the atmosphere?

Because of photosynthesis, obviously. But then it's not actually that obvious after all, because photosynthesis is mostly balanced by respiration. We can summarise the processes of photosynthesis ...
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Is pollution a contributing factor to freezing rain?

I have been to different places with nearly the same freezing temperatures, around -2°C, but only at some specific places I repetitively experienced freezing rain. One common factor at these places ...
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3 Billion years ago, the earth is covered with Carbon Dioxide. Where did it go?

Oxygen gas began to appear on the earth surface about 2 billion years ago by photosynthesis. Carbon Dioxide was converted into carbohydrates in the process. Where did these carbohydrates go? If they ...
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Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

Question When discussing "PM2.5", is there any standardized understanding of which particles are or are not included? Is it everything that's 2.5 microns and smaller? Or Everything between 2....
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How do current pollution levels in Los Angeles compare to the 1970s?

As I understand it there are two key kinds of air pollution: ozone and fine particles. Are there any long-term data series that chart average ozone levels and/or fine particulates over time going ...
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Is it true that a butterfly flapping its wings can result in a tornado in a distant location?

I have heard that extreme storm events can be caused simply by a butterfly flapping its wings somewhere in a distant location. Is it true that such a small disturbance in the air in one location can ...
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regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...

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