Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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3answers
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Why does warm air “hold” more moisture?

It is often explained that warm air holds more water because warmer water is less likely to condense. This and other explanations just seem to be circular arguments. If the warmer air picks up enough ...
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What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
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How do we measure the total heat content contained in ocean and atmosphere?

This is similar to How is ocean heat content measured?, but here I'm thinking about the total content rather than fluxes in the content between land and ocean.
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Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
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Is there an atmospheric hydrogen cycle?

There are various physical, chemical and biological processes that free up hydrogen from molecules (often hydrocarbons or water). Once in the atmosphere, the hydrogen is lost to space (the Earth's ...
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Why do tethered aerostats have lower persistence than stratospheric balloons?

We have been thinking of using Aerostats/Balloons for an environmental monitoring project in our university. We have been considering 2 options: Tethered Aerostats (which fly upto 1 km) and ...
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1answer
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Why is the skyline hazy on the Greek islands?

I've recently been to Crete, Santorini and am currently on Ios. I've noticed that there is a hazy-ness when I look out on the sea: there's no definitive line where sky meets sea, they just blur ...
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1answer
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Given a 3 box model of the atmosphere,determine fraction of mass transport from lower layer

P = 300mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 375K P = 600mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 325K P = 900mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 350K (surface) Given that a deep convective plume sends a portion of the bottom layer to the ...
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Given only pressure and potential equivalent temperature, can I determine other variables?

I am given a 3 box model of atmosphere where each layer is 300 mbar thick, and the potential equivalent temperature of each is given (from bottom to top - 350K, 325K, 375K). Am I able to determine ...
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1answer
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Where do bad smells eventually go?

Suppose that I haven't taken a shower for a while, or haven't disposed of my trash, or something, and the room I've been in now stinks. Then, to remove the smell from the room (presumably after first ...
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Technical term for percentage of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere

I have a theoretical exercise where I calculated the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere per year (4.6 ppm). We assume that the relative increase of CO2 is 2 ppm, hence the percentage of ...
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What are the environmental effects of leaking hydrogen from large-scale energy storage mechanisms?

I recently have calculated the total cost of an energy system that is based on wind power as the primary power source and hydrogen as the energy storage mechanism. The total system costs are ...
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What are the conditions for an ionosphere to form?

I already asked this on Astronomy SE but did not receive any answer so far: What are the prerequisites for an ionosphere to form? For example, can a planet without any atmosphere have an ionosphere? ...
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Is oxygen the most abundant element on Earth?

When I was in school, I was taught that we need oxygen to breathe, but it actually constitutes only a small fraction of the atmospheric composition, and that nitrogen constituted the largest fraction ...
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How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
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1answer
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What were CO2 levels in Carboniferous?

What were CO2 levels in early and late Carboniferous, an what were mean levels? Who are the sources for these figures?
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Difference between sulfuric clouds and sulfuric haze (on Venus)?

In a conversation in comments below this answer to the question in Space Exploration Could we see the surface of Venus after the explosion of a H-bomb in its atmosphere? we're speculating about what ...
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Coriolis effect and Cyclones

The Coriolis force predicts that winds in the northern hemisphere should be deflected in a clockwise pattern and winds in the southern hemisphere should be deflected in an anti-clockwise pattern. Why ...
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1answer
451 views

Over which surface will the albedo changes due to clear and overcast skies have the greatest impact?

With respect to climate change, will the changes in albedos due to clear skies and overcast skies have the greatest impact on incoming solar radiation over ocean, sea ice, or land? My thoughts: On a ...
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2answers
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Will a country that cares for its environment be affected by climate change due to other countries' activities?

Let's say my country is very environment conscious, has lots of trees and animals, protects the forest, uses clean/green energy, and has all kinds of environment friendly policies you can imagine. ...
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Optical Thickness of the Atmosphere

Homework question: Show that the absorption optical thickness of the atmosphere at pressure $p$ (i.e., between $p$ and the top of the atmosphere) as a function of the mixing ratio of the ...
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Clarification: Effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature

This terminology is quite confusing to me. Are effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature the same thing? Where does this occur, at the surface, or at some ...
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How to reduce the atmospheric temperature artificially?

Is there any gas/substance which absorbs/reduces atmospheric temperature? Ozone filters UV rays from the sun light and allows in infrared rays. In my knowledge these infrared rays are the cause of ...
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Ozone layer and radiation absorption

The ozone layer if compressed to a minimum on the earth's surface can absorb infrared radiation. How is it possible that the same molecule can absorb radiation of two different wavelength with ...
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1answer
261 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
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1answer
139 views

What's the difference between uptake and adsorption of gas into aerosols

In the area of atmospheric chemistry, I have learned that the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 is one of the important pathways for sulfate formation. The reactions of SO2 oxidation in mineral, soot ...
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Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
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2answers
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Appearing of Weird Cornered Cloud in Sky?

It was about 6'o Clock in the Evening. Suddenly I noticed A wierd Cloud in the middle of the sky. Is there Natural Phenomenon responsible for creating such prefect clouds? & What it is? or ...
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Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

Earth's current average global temperature (i.e. including hot deserts and cold polar caps) is reported be somewhere between 14°C and 16°C (depending on sources and methods). This temperature varies ...
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1answer
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Why is the upper atmosphere brighter than the lower atmosphere in some photos from space?

In most photos from space, the atmosphere gradually fades away from pretty bright blue to essentially black, as you move away from the Earth surface, such as can be seen in this photo of the Earth ...
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1answer
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How to calculate residence time for an element in a reservoir?

The residence time for an element in a reservoir can be calculated by the reservoir size at steady state divided by the inflow or outflow rate. Given the following diagram, I need to calculate the ...
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3answers
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What would be the temperature of earth if there was no atmosphere?

I do know that the atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect),and reducing temperature extremes between ...
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1answer
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Where on Earth does the atmosphere have the most $O_2$ concentration?

Is there a map that shows the average oxygen concentration in the atmosphere? Seems to me that it would be where the most plants are but I wonder if population and industry make a difference in oxygen ...
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1answer
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Where on Earth has the least changing temperature? [closed]

Is there a map that shows places where the temperature changes the least season to season? Is there a place on Earth where the temperature is the most constant in a comfortable range?
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If the nitrogen and oxygen in our atmosphere were doubled would the pressure double?

As to P=ρgh, would the height of the atmosphere be affected by an increase in nitrogen and oxygen mass or would the height remain constant? Thanks!
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Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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1answer
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Why (actually) is the night sky so bright in the city? How far up is that happening?

The recent news reported by the New York Times, the BBC and the NPR web sites (for example) as well as in the Iceland Review and Iceland Magazine sites, about the shutting-off of Reykjavik's ...
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How long is the ISS visible from Earth? [closed]

If I‘d lie on the ground and the ISS became visible, how long could I see it (min/sec), if the circumstances were perfect and I didn't change my position?
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Why is the sky blue? Due to the ozone layer or due to ''light scatterization in atmosphere''? [closed]

I've found several answers to the question of why the sky is blue. Basically the title. Elaborate however you want...
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1answer
938 views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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2answers
434 views

what is the best way to actually make the Earth lose heat?

I know that refrigerated air just moves heat around, and creates more by using fossil fuel energy in the process. If we wanted to actually reduce the amount of net heat energy in an area on the ...
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1answer
117 views

Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

Imagine that we've improved the level quality, affordability, and ease of use of photo-voltaic solar, and it's use is widely distributed in the USA. We've improved the grid for power distribution, we ...
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1answer
173 views

Could a firestorm create a hurricane-like cyclone?

Mesocyclones form when air rises and rotates in a "pillar" of sorts. It's sometimes associated with thunderclouds and tornado formation. A certain kind of cumulonimbus, the cumulonimbus flammagenitus,...
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Why is the night very bright in the Himalayas?

Some years ago I had the chance to climb the Himalayas. Not the Everest of course, but the Annapurna Base Camp which is about 4km above sea level. During the night of the stay I went out to do some ...
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1answer
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What atmospheric phenomenon am I seeing in this photo?

On a trip to Brighton, England on April 12th, 2015, I noticed this strange plume in the sky over the English Channel at about 13:00 hours. It looks like; Something that fell out of the sky - the news ...
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1answer
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How does the tornado chaser locate the spot?

In my opinion, tornado is hard to forecast in three different aspects: The size of tornado is about 100 ~ 1000 m which can't be represented well in weather model or detected by limited weather ...
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How do we measure (or empirically calculate) the amount of entropy in the atmosphere and oceans?

Here's a paper on the entropy budget1, where moist entropy is defined in equation (8) as $$ s = (1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln T - R_d \ln p_d) + q_t C_l \ln T + \frac{q_v L_v}{T} - q_v R_v \ln \mathcal{H} $$ ...
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Calculating exoatmosphereic flux and figuring out amount of SW Earth will absorb at an albedo of 0.3?

Am working through two problems which I am not sure if I am handling correctly. Here they are: a. If the Earth decreases its distance from the sun by 0.03 Astronomical Units (AU), what will be ...
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A rough picture about the ground-level ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia is the only alkaline gas in the atmosphere. It is one of the key features to control the acidity of aerosols and the formation of ammonium salts. In the environment of $NH_3$-rich and $NH_3$-...

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