Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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2
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2answers
751 views

Where does water vapor go/what does the sun do?

For instance, coastal areas are often foggy in the morning. Then the sun “burns it off”. Where does the moisture go? I’m curious of the star’s (i.e. Sun) influence on evaporation effects.
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1answer
44 views

How different can microclimates be than their surrounding areas?

How much different in temperature and pressure can a microclimate be than the surrounding region? In other words, if you had a dry region but then a valley within a ring of mountains that isolated ...
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3answers
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What makes up a gradient [closed]

My question is a two part question. First I currently know of two different gradients.I think there is more; however, I don't completely understand what makes a gradient. So, here is my questions. ...
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1answer
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Prevailing winds between 30 to 60 degrees latitude [duplicate]

Prevailing winds are generated by Coriolis effects. I think I understand why NE winds are the prevailing winds in 0 to 30 degrees and 60 to 90 degrees latitude in the northern hemisphere (e.g., ...
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1answer
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What would the pH of rainwater be if carbon dioxide in the atmosphere doubled?

Natural rain water is slightly acidic (pH = 5.6) since there is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that dissolves to make carbonic acid. What would be the pH of rainwater if carbon dioxide in the ...
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2answers
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How can there be a hot summer with rain and no thunderstorms and lightning?

This summer in the south of France we have had two hot months with 29 days over 30'C, while the average maximum is 26'C in July. Normally there are violent storms with lightening up to 20 times a ...
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1answer
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Why were both the sun and the moon red today?

Today was a normal day, except the sun and moon colors were strange. After 5pm, the sky was covered with cirrostratus-like translucent clouds and the sky was a blend of blue and grey. Everything ...
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0answers
140 views

Is there a reconstruction of paleoclimate sea level air pressure?

In paleoclimateology graphs of both temperature and atmospheric composition versus time are common. Where can I find a reconstruction of sea surface pressure versus time? I have found one paper that ...
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1answer
155 views

Why is the Atlantic anticyclone an area of high pressure if it's the warmest spot on the planet?

I am taking a navigational course and part of it is about meteorology. There is one thing which is, although obvious, quite hard for me to grasp. Looking at a global weather map like this: https://...
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3answers
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ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
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2answers
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How much atmoshphere is there compared to land and water

We know our earth has 71% water and 29% land, but compared to that land and water, how much air do we have in our atmosphere? I mean: How big is our atmosphere Is there any increase or decrease in ...
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1answer
131 views

Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?

How is it possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Measurements if it is placed above the most important earth thermal plume that is heating the ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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0answers
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Pileus / velum & altocumulus / altostratus - classification problems

I have a lot of free time and often observe and take photos of the sky. Along with that, I always try to figure out what exactly I saw. I think that I have the basic understanding of clouds and cloud ...
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2answers
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Plotting wind barbs in python (no U,V component)

I've got 4 different .txt files for longitude, latitude, wind speed and wind direction (so no U and V components of the wind). Is there any way to plot wind barbs from such a dataset?
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2answers
205 views

Is there an atmospheric data database somewhere on the web?

For a personal project, i wanted to develop a global atmospheric database, to compile data like wind speed and direction, temperature, etc. from different sources. My question is this : Does such a ...
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Effect of urbanization on weather events

At what stage is the studies on effect of urbanization on weather events (eg: Rainfall, Temperature, UHI) are now? There has been a number of observational and modelling studies around the world and ...
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2answers
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Are there any effects on the atmosphere comparable with ebb and flood of the oceans?

Due to the attraction of our moon (and Sun) our oceans undergo an up and down movement every day. So the water rises or falls by a couple of meters. But does this type of effect also occur with our ...
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1answer
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Can the atmosphere affect the composition of igneous rocks?

Recently I was reading 'How to build a habitable planet' by Langmuir and Broecker and in chapter 15 they speak about how Life has led to a difference in oxidation potential in the atmosphere, ...
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2answers
115 views

How do we calculate if a meteoroid will completely burn up in the atmosphere?

Most meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere, so they don't impact the Earth's surface. Factors that seem important include: size and mass of the meteoroid angle of meteoroid's path through the ...
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1k views

How to compute du/dx and dv/dy in moisture flux convergence?

I have $u$-wind, $v$-wind and specific humidity. I would like to compute moisture flux convergence at a grid point. So I need to compute the value of $q(\frac{du}{dx} + \frac{dv}{dy})$ My question is ...
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0answers
549 views

What are the Theoretical Limits for Tornado Size and Strength

Is there a theoretical physical limit that we can calculate with regards to Tornado formation? At what size and strength is a hypothetical tornado physically impossible. The largest tornado in ...
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2answers
326 views

When do winds gets stronger?

Do winds on Earth always gets stronger when the temperature is higher or are winds only increasing when the temperature gets higher. So the difference is that when temperatures áre higher (with a ...
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3answers
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How is it possible that a Hurricane such as Alex forms in the Atlantic in winter?

Hurricane Alex (developed from an area of low pressure which began in the Atlantic near Bahamas in January 2016, and developed subtropical and later tropical storm characteristics to the south of the ...
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2answers
1k views

How to interpret the values of moisture flux convergence?

I have a time series of moisture flux convergence. The values show positive and negative. What are these positive and negative values say? Can somebody help me how to interpret it? How it is related ...
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1answer
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Interpolating Merra reanalysis

Merra re-analysis ara available for a coarser horizontal grid with resolution of 0.625 × 0.5 degrees providing differents parameters : Precipitation, Temperature ....This been said, I want to ...
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1answer
73 views

Are there measurements or calculations that suggest atmospheric ice plates would be horizontal to within 0.1 degrees?

This question describes a recently released explanation for flashes of light seen at the sub-solar point above Earth from the DSCOVR satellite, which is located in a special orbit between the Earth ...
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1answer
516 views

Why do cities at high altitude regions have high atmospheric pressures?

Why do cities at high altitude regions, such as Lhasa, altitude 11995ft (3656 metre), have high atmospheric pressures such as 30.11inHg (101.97 kPa) in the weather report?
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Why does El Niño only exist in the Pacific Ocean and not the Atlantic/Indian Oceans?

El Niño is associated with the weakening of the ‘normal’ pressure/temperature gradients between the western and eastern Pacific Oceans. My question is this: why does it only exist in the Pacific ...
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2answers
633 views

Is wind just mainly nitrogen particles moving in one direction?

The air is composed of mainly nitrogen. Therefore, when you feel wind, is it mainly nitrogen particles hitting you that, on average, are moving in one direction?
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1answer
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Estimating the residence time of atmospheric CO2 from bomb 14C

This (rather dodgy) graph shows a number of estimates of the residence time of atmospheric CO2: My question concerns why there is so much variation (Machta, 1974 about 3 years, Seuss and Druffe, 1983 ...
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1answer
185 views

How can scientists measure chemical composition on other planets?

How can scientists measure chemical composition (oxygen, nitrogen etc) and temperature on other planets without being there?
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How far up do you have to go before most of the atmosphere is below you?

If I wanted to make an air shield around the earth to contain exactly half the planet's atmosphere (by mass), how far above sea level would I have to build it? It's slightly complicated to me because ...
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3answers
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. $CO_2$ for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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How to remove 'silk braid' noise in satellite data?

Satellite remote sensing data is a powerful tool for researching the spatial distribution and temporal variation of atmospheric species. Aura is one satellite owing to NASA which meaning ...
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1answer
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What's the background concentration of trace gas/pollutants?

I have read a paper discussing the concentration of air pollutants and their background concentration. In the paper Characterization of background air pollution exposure in urban environments using a ...
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2answers
804 views

How do we apply the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to radiative heat transfer from/to CO2 in the atmosphere?

If we can use the Stefan-Boltzman equation to quantify the radiative flux leaving a solid body due to emission of radiation and to do it properly for a solid body we need to include the emissivity ...
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0answers
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Equation for Atmospheric Pressure Tide

Using Pressure sensors - I found out that there is a daily pressure wave-like pattern with peaks at 9:00 & 21:00 (local time). I want to construct an equation to explain this phenomena, probably ...
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1answer
402 views

Experimental testing to falsify the theory of the greenhouse gas effect [duplicate]

Irrespective of how accepted any scientific theory happens to be it is often worth thinking about a possible experiment to test said theory and perhaps falsify it. If we wanted to do this for the ...
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3answers
519 views

Which physical parameters can we actually measure to confirm the existence of the Greenhouse Effect (GHE)? [closed]

The theory of a GHE in a planetary atmosphere is rather well known. Many claim it is no longer a theory but actually proven as a fact. However I have been reading a lot of things Richard Feynman said ...
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1answer
273 views

Nitrogen cycle semantics; nitrification/nitrogen fixation

Is 'nitrification' and 'nitrogen fixation' used interchangeably to describe biological reduction of $\ce{N2}$ gas to $\ce{NH3}$? I know $\ce{NH4} \to \ce{NO3}$ is called nitrification too.
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How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
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3answers
9k views

Why is there a seasonal cycle to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere?

I'm doing some homework on the increase of $\mathrm{CO}_2$ in the atmosphere. On one of the graphs it shows the amount of $\mathrm{CO}_2$ peaks in May and has a low in November. Why is this? Shouldn't ...
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0answers
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Why Do Carbon Dioxide Levels Vary Seasonally? [duplicate]

I was reading this article today, and I saw this chart of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the past year: The chart shows a decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from roughly June-October,...
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2answers
273 views

How large can local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes?

I'd like to have a rough idea of how large local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes. For example, a purely hypothetical experiment: If I set up some CO2 monitors in a wide ...
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1answer
1k views

Does natural plant decomposition release more greenhouse gases than burning

I understand that all plant matter releases CO2 as it decomposes and also when it burns in, for example, a forest fire. My assumption, upon which this question is based, is that the CO2 release is the ...
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2answers
499 views

Why does the emission of aircrafts at higher altitudes have a greater effect on the climate?

I am trying to understand the footprint of a flight. First Wikipedia says (without quoting a source): The level and effects of CO2 emissions are currently believed to be broadly the same ...
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2answers
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Why is at high altitude more light from oxygen in the auroras while it is heavier than nitrogen?

In an other recent question is said that because of diffusion and thermal causes oxygen and nitrogen are mixed. Nevertheless oxygen is a little bit heavier than oxygen so it should be lower in the ...
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3answers
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Is increase in atmospheric $\mathrm{CO}_2$ concentration affecting Earth's atmospheric pressure?

It's well known that the $\mathrm{CO}_2$ levels around the world are increasing, leading to an increase in overall surface temperature, etc. But I'm wondering, are these gases (or the effects from ...
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2answers
439 views

What are the formulae for calculating the thermal heating effect of back radiation in greenhouse gases?

The ability of greenhouse gases to trap heat and re-radiate some of it back to the original heat source looks like a useful thermal property which could possibly be incorporated in things like double ...