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Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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2answers
3k views

How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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Is the impact of carbon emision dependent on the location on the earth?

While I was reading how the EU taxes aviation companies based on carbon emissions it occurred to me that the effect of carbon emissions on global temperature etc. may depend on where the carbon is ...
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How much atmoshphere is there compared to land and water

We know our earth has 71% water and 29% land, but compared to that land and water, how much air do we have in our atmosphere? I mean: How big is our atmosphere Is there any increase or decrease in ...
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Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?

How is it possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Measurements if it is placed above the most important earth thermal plume that is heating the ...
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How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
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Pileus / velum & altocumulus / altostratus - classification problems

I have a lot of free time and often observe and take photos of the sky. Along with that, I always try to figure out what exactly I saw. I think that I have the basic understanding of clouds and cloud ...
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1k views

Plotting wind barbs in python (no U,V component)

I've got 4 different .txt files for longitude, latitude, wind speed and wind direction (so no U and V components of the wind). Is there any way to plot wind barbs from such a dataset?
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Is there an atmospheric data database somewhere on the web?

For a personal project, i wanted to develop a global atmospheric database, to compile data like wind speed and direction, temperature, etc. from different sources. My question is this : Does such a ...
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0answers
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What are 'sulphate particles' in the context of atmospheric chemistry?

This informative answer describes some processes in atmospheric chemistry and mentions "sulphate particles". Actually I realize that I don't know what a 'sulphate particle' really is, though I've ...
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2answers
116 views

How do we calculate if a meteoroid will completely burn up in the atmosphere?

Most meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere, so they don't impact the Earth's surface. Factors that seem important include: size and mass of the meteoroid angle of meteoroid's path through the ...
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1answer
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Can the atmosphere affect the composition of igneous rocks?

Recently I was reading 'How to build a habitable planet' by Langmuir and Broecker and in chapter 15 they speak about how Life has led to a difference in oxidation potential in the atmosphere, ...
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What are the Theoretical Limits for Tornado Size and Strength

Is there a theoretical physical limit that we can calculate with regards to Tornado formation? At what size and strength is a hypothetical tornado physically impossible. The largest tornado in ...
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Are there any effects on the atmosphere comparable with ebb and flood of the oceans?

Due to the attraction of our moon (and Sun) our oceans undergo an up and down movement every day. So the water rises or falls by a couple of meters. But does this type of effect also occur with our ...
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Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
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1answer
522 views

Why do cities at high altitude regions have high atmospheric pressures?

Why do cities at high altitude regions, such as Lhasa, altitude 11995ft (3656 metre), have high atmospheric pressures such as 30.11inHg (101.97 kPa) in the weather report?
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Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
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Are there measurements or calculations that suggest atmospheric ice plates would be horizontal to within 0.1 degrees?

This question describes a recently released explanation for flashes of light seen at the sub-solar point above Earth from the DSCOVR satellite, which is located in a special orbit between the Earth ...
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1answer
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How can scientists measure chemical composition on other planets?

How can scientists measure chemical composition (oxygen, nitrogen etc) and temperature on other planets without being there?
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How far up do you have to go before most of the atmosphere is below you?

If I wanted to make an air shield around the earth to contain exactly half the planet's atmosphere (by mass), how far above sea level would I have to build it? It's slightly complicated to me because ...
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Is there any evidence for higher air pressures in the geological past?

I was curious about how the Earth's overall air pressure has varied over time, and tried to take a look around the internet. However, Google pops up a lot of sites with questionable science proposing ...
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How do we apply the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to radiative heat transfer from/to CO2 in the atmosphere?

If we can use the Stefan-Boltzman equation to quantify the radiative flux leaving a solid body due to emission of radiation and to do it properly for a solid body we need to include the emissivity ...
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Equation for Atmospheric Pressure Tide

Using Pressure sensors - I found out that there is a daily pressure wave-like pattern with peaks at 9:00 & 21:00 (local time). I want to construct an equation to explain this phenomena, probably ...
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Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
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1answer
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Experimental testing to falsify the theory of the greenhouse gas effect [duplicate]

Irrespective of how accepted any scientific theory happens to be it is often worth thinking about a possible experiment to test said theory and perhaps falsify it. If we wanted to do this for the ...
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1answer
274 views

Nitrogen cycle semantics; nitrification/nitrogen fixation

Is 'nitrification' and 'nitrogen fixation' used interchangeably to describe biological reduction of $\ce{N2}$ gas to $\ce{NH3}$? I know $\ce{NH4} \to \ce{NO3}$ is called nitrification too.
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Why Do Carbon Dioxide Levels Vary Seasonally? [duplicate]

I was reading this article today, and I saw this chart of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the past year: The chart shows a decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from roughly June-October,...
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Which physical parameters can we actually measure to confirm the existence of the Greenhouse Effect (GHE)? [closed]

The theory of a GHE in a planetary atmosphere is rather well known. Many claim it is no longer a theory but actually proven as a fact. However I have been reading a lot of things Richard Feynman said ...
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ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
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2answers
286 views

How large can local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes?

I'd like to have a rough idea of how large local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes. For example, a purely hypothetical experiment: If I set up some CO2 monitors in a wide ...
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3answers
157 views

How to design an experiment to quantify back radiation from atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$...
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1answer
156 views

Persistence time of ozone

Ozone is formed in the upper atmosphere by ultraviolet light, and broken down by ultraviolet, spontaneous reactions and artificial pollutants among other things. Suppose there were no artificial ...
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2answers
338 views

When do winds gets stronger?

Do winds on Earth always gets stronger when the temperature is higher or are winds only increasing when the temperature gets higher. So the difference is that when temperatures áre higher (with a ...
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459 views

What are the formulae for calculating the thermal heating effect of back radiation in greenhouse gases?

The ability of greenhouse gases to trap heat and re-radiate some of it back to the original heat source looks like a useful thermal property which could possibly be incorporated in things like double ...
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1answer
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If the atmosphere is (very nearly) an ideal gas, how can it ever be barotropic?

A barotropic fluid is a fluid whose density is a function of pressure only, i.e. $\rho=\rho(p)$. My understanding is that, in the atmosphere, in general, the tropics are barotropic whereas the ...
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Is there any method to analysis the variation of chemical species removing the meteorology condition

Here is my question. The concentration of atmospheric species is decided by three major components: The source related to natural or anthropology activities. The chemical pathway of the formation ...
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1answer
4k views

Why do modern windmills turn clockwise, but classic mills turn counter-clockwise? [closed]

Most modern windmills appears to rotate clockwise. I know that is has something to do with the direction were the wind is coming from. But how to understand this?
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542 views

Why does the emission of aircrafts at higher altitudes have a greater effect on the climate?

I am trying to understand the footprint of a flight. First Wikipedia says (without quoting a source): The level and effects of CO2 emissions are currently believed to be broadly the same ...
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3answers
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Effect of urbanization on weather events

At what stage is the studies on effect of urbanization on weather events (eg: Rainfall, Temperature, UHI) are now? There has been a number of observational and modelling studies around the world and ...
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3answers
10k views

How does Earth's heat escape to space?

I know that if the sun stopped shining, Earth would lose it's heat and we'd all freeze and die. On the other hand, we don't keep increasing temperature when the sun shines because heat escapes to ...
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0answers
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Topographical model of a wind-farm [duplicate]

Has anyone ever built and tested a topographical model of a 200 mile radius with a wind-farm in the middle to see how much wind speeds and wind direction change when the farm is active compared to ...
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2answers
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How to interpret the values of moisture flux convergence?

I have a time series of moisture flux convergence. The values show positive and negative. What are these positive and negative values say? Can somebody help me how to interpret it? How it is related ...
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. $CO_2$ for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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2answers
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How to compute du/dx and dv/dy in moisture flux convergence?

I have $u$-wind, $v$-wind and specific humidity. I would like to compute moisture flux convergence at a grid point. So I need to compute the value of $q(\frac{du}{dx} + \frac{dv}{dy})$ My question is ...
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How to calculate column averaged kinetic energy?

I have u-wind, v-wind and w-wind at 11 pressure levels (starting from 1000 to 100). I would like to calculate column averaged kinetic energy. I have the formula to do this as: $KE=\frac 1{g(Ps-Ptop)} ...
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2answers
129 views

Why do buoyantly rising mantle minerals melt, yet buoyantly rising atmospheric waters condense?

In the mantle, minerals contained in buoyant plumes of rock undergo phase changes from solid to liquid (decompression melting). In the atmosphere, waters contained in buoyant plumes of air undergo ...
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1answer
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What negative side effects would occur if silicate mining were used to artificially lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations?

As one half of the naturally occurring Carbonate–silicate cycle, carbon dioxide is naturally removed from the atmosphere by the chemical reaction: CaSiO$_3$ + 2CO$_2$ + H$_2$O → Ca2+(aq) + 2HCO$_3$-(...
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1answer
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Does the Antarctic Ozone Hole affect the rest of the world?

Sometimes you read about skin cancer and the ozone hole in Australia. But when you look it up the ozone hole is basically just near the South Pole, and maybe a bit above the North Pole (because that’s ...
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1answer
178 views

At what altitude do winds exert the most force?

Imagine I want to make a floating wind turbine like the Altaeros BAT, which is tethered and uses helium. What would be the best height to keep such a device deployed? I know that wind velocity ...
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1answer
766 views

How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
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1answer
742 views

Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...