Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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7
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3answers
11k views

How does Earth's heat escape to space?

I know that if the sun stopped shining, Earth would lose it's heat and we'd all freeze and die. On the other hand, we don't keep increasing temperature when the sun shines because heat escapes to ...
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0answers
47 views

Topographical model of a wind-farm [duplicate]

Has anyone ever built and tested a topographical model of a 200 mile radius with a wind-farm in the middle to see how much wind speeds and wind direction change when the farm is active compared to ...
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How to interpret the values of moisture flux convergence?

I have a time series of moisture flux convergence. The values show positive and negative. What are these positive and negative values say? Can somebody help me how to interpret it? How it is related ...
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3answers
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. $CO_2$ for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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How to compute du/dx and dv/dy in moisture flux convergence?

I have $u$-wind, $v$-wind and specific humidity. I would like to compute moisture flux convergence at a grid point. So I need to compute the value of $q(\frac{du}{dx} + \frac{dv}{dy})$ My question is ...
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0answers
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How to calculate column averaged kinetic energy?

I have u-wind, v-wind and w-wind at 11 pressure levels (starting from 1000 to 100). I would like to calculate column averaged kinetic energy. I have the formula to do this as: $KE=\frac 1{g(Ps-Ptop)} ...
3
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2answers
130 views

Why do buoyantly rising mantle minerals melt, yet buoyantly rising atmospheric waters condense?

In the mantle, minerals contained in buoyant plumes of rock undergo phase changes from solid to liquid (decompression melting). In the atmosphere, waters contained in buoyant plumes of air undergo ...
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1answer
82 views

What negative side effects would occur if silicate mining were used to artificially lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations?

As one half of the naturally occurring Carbonate–silicate cycle, carbon dioxide is naturally removed from the atmosphere by the chemical reaction: CaSiO$_3$ + 2CO$_2$ + H$_2$O → Ca2+(aq) + 2HCO$_3$-(...
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1answer
252 views

Does the Antarctic Ozone Hole affect the rest of the world?

Sometimes you read about skin cancer and the ozone hole in Australia. But when you look it up the ozone hole is basically just near the South Pole, and maybe a bit above the North Pole (because that’s ...
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1answer
188 views

At what altitude do winds exert the most force?

Imagine I want to make a floating wind turbine like the Altaeros BAT, which is tethered and uses helium. What would be the best height to keep such a device deployed? I know that wind velocity ...
9
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1answer
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How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
6
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1answer
841 views

Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
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1answer
146 views

What is the residue after plant matter is completely decomposed?

What typical fraction of decomposing plant matter, left on the surface rather than buried, is not released in gaseous form? My simple world view is that the plant structure has all come from the air, ...
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1answer
1k views

Does “atmospheric forcing” have a stated definition?

I often come across the words "atmospheric forcing" or "meteorological forcing" in journals. I presume it just means the influence/impacts of the atmosphere upon factors such as climate, wind ...
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1answer
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Why do anticyclones bring clear skies in summertime?

It's obvious that in summer anticyclones bring hot weather. But why clear skies? Heat evaporates the moisture and should lead to the cloud formation, shouldn't it?
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2answers
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Other than the South Pole where is the windless place on Earth?

For this other question "Would this chambered cylinder be possible", preferably near the equator where is a calmest place from the troposphere to the stratosphere where is the windless place one Earth ...
3
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2answers
643 views

How long it takes to cool a planet?

Suppose a planet like Earth or Venus is totally isolated from sunlight. How quick would it cool down? On Earth it seems to me that the air temperature drops significantly even during a night. Does it ...
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1answer
107 views

How will climate change affect planetary waves?

You can see planetary/rossby waves in the meanders of the jet stream. In short: If an air parcel moves from warm subtropics towards the pole, it will deviate toward the east due to conservation of ...
3
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2answers
158 views

Elevation of Atmosphere differ?

Does the atmosphere depth (or how high the air molecules from the ground) of Earth or Mars differ gradually or can there be plumes of atmosphere that reaches into space? If I were able to travel a ...
4
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1answer
69 views

The higher value range for the same satellite product (NO2_OMI_TEMIS)

I'm dealing with NO2 column density of troposphere, and my data source is TEMIS. The NO2 level3 data can be derived from the original information of OMI instrument. I have downloaded two types of ...
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1answer
156 views

Why is the Atlantic anticyclone an area of high pressure if it's the warmest spot on the planet?

I am taking a navigational course and part of it is about meteorology. There is one thing which is, although obvious, quite hard for me to grasp. Looking at a global weather map like this: https://...
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2answers
4k views

Is oxygen spread equally on Earth's surface?

We know that oxygen comes from trees and plants (photosynthesis), so in the jungle where there are a lot of trees you would expect more oxygen than in the desert where there are no trees. Walking in ...
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1answer
3k views

What factors affect daily temperature range?

I was wondering if the difference between the low temp and the high temp depended on just the humidity content and the altitude of a place. Or are there more factors? What about the time of year? How ...
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1answer
3k views

Why is the sky bluer in winter than in summer?

I don't know why, but I have noticed my whole life that the sky's blue color seems saturated in winter and sort of pale, milky, and washed out in the summer. Does it have to do with the angle of the ...
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1answer
850 views

Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
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1answer
442 views

Estimating the residence time of atmospheric CO2 from bomb 14C

This (rather dodgy) graph shows a number of estimates of the residence time of atmospheric CO2: My question concerns why there is so much variation (Machta, 1974 about 3 years, Seuss and Druffe, 1983 ...
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2answers
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Have these optical satellite ground station locations been chosen for clear skies?

Having lived in southern California, I know that some areas on the planet can be absurdly sunny and clear throughout the year, and having lived several other places, I know some areas can be ...
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0answers
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What would be characteristic time of the escape of an 1atm air (or oxygene atmosphere) from the Moon?

(related question) I am thinking on the Moon if it would have an oxygen atmosphere. What would be the characteristic time of its escape? Although the Moon has a much lower escape velocity as the ...
5
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1answer
81 views

What is the characteristical time of the loss of the Earth atmosphere, how can it be calculated?

Somewhere I've read it is in the order of some tens of billions of years, but unfortunately I can't find any reference with it in Google. I suspect, the losses are coming mainly from analyzing the ...
4
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1answer
96 views

doubt about the 'white spaces' in the maps from satellite

I have a doubt about the 'white spaces' in the maps from satellite. For example, for the atlantic areas I have plotted AOD and appear many areas where sistematically do not have any data (white spaces)...
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1answer
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Why (actually) is the night sky so bright in the city? How far up is that happening?

The recent news reported by the New York Times, the BBC and the NPR web sites (for example) as well as in the Iceland Review and Iceland Magazine sites, about the shutting-off of Reykjavik's ...
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1answer
115 views

Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

Imagine that we've improved the level quality, affordability, and ease of use of photo-voltaic solar, and it's use is widely distributed in the USA. We've improved the grid for power distribution, we ...
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1answer
1k views

How does one interpret negative geopotential height values?

I am using NCEP Reanalysis Geopotential height data and this is at 1000 mb and downloading it from here - 1000 Mb Geopotential height values and some of these values are negative for a particular date ...
5
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0answers
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Dig in the rationality of model evaluation of WRF with land-based station data

I use WRF (Weather research and forecasting) model for in regional scale meteorology simulation. And then, the WRF output files will be deemed as criterial input data applying for chemical transport ...
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2answers
223 views

What do cumulonimbus clouds signify?

When I saw huge cumulonimbus clouds in the sky I thought the weather would be just fine, but in the evening it started raining. So I just wanted to know what do these clouds really signify.
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1answer
1k views

How to locally identify a cold front passage?

I know that the passage of a cold front affects local conditions by decreasing the temperature and shifting the winds. Some precipitation could happen as well. How do software that analyze weather ...
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1answer
55 views

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated?

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated? Specifically, how do we calculate total ion density, total ion temperature and individual major ion densities from I-V Characteristics curve of ...
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0answers
79 views

What timescales do eddies operate at in the planetary boundary layer?

What are the largest eddies within the planetary boundary layer? What timescales do the operate on? Edit: I'm talking about atmospheric eddies over land. So, eddies that are measured in [eddy ...
2
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1answer
147 views

What affects the surface characteristics of cumulus clouds?

I love looking at clouds. I love trying to describe them and compare what I see day to day. I have dozens of questions about the things I’ve observed and I would really like to understand the physics ...
2
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1answer
58 views

Interpolating Merra reanalysis

Merra re-analysis ara available for a coarser horizontal grid with resolution of 0.625 × 0.5 degrees providing differents parameters : Precipitation, Temperature ....This been said, I want to ...
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1answer
96 views

Can atmospheric conditions cause carbonated beverages to fizz more?

For some reason today, carbonated beverages have been fizzing up more than usual. It's happening with beer and club soda. Very strange, no gremlins either - the beer was from the back of the fridge, ...
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1answer
206 views

What is the science behind CFCs depleting the ozone layer? [closed]

Specifically, if the daily production of ozone and cfc were at most 400 million and 3k tons, respectively, would each mol of cfc be able to destroy tens of thousands of mols of ozone? All the sources ...
7
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1answer
344 views

What's the prospect of air quality forecasting based on machine learning?

Air quality forecasting models which are useful for atmospheric scientist and government can be built based on numerical theory or statistic theory. The first approach outline the basic physics ...
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2answers
2k views

How do current pollution levels in Los Angeles compare to the 1970s?

As I understand it there are two key kinds of air pollution: ozone and fine particles. Are there any long-term data series that chart average ozone levels and/or fine particulates over time going ...
7
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1answer
154 views

Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
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2answers
96 views

Amount of Earths water with consideration to space travel?

Everyone always says that there has always been, and always will be, the same amount of water on planet Earth. What about space travel? They obviously need water in space, so they must take it up ...
3
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1answer
146 views

Explanation for single rainbow that contained colors several times

I saw a rainbow outside Silverton, CO last week that for a few minutes seemed to show part of the color cycle (red to purple) several times within the same band. This picture is how it looked to my ...
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1answer
524 views

Why are lenticular clouds circular?

I recently visited Japan, where I observed a lenticular cloud above Mount Fuji: Curious by the cloud, I looked it up and found it it's a lenticular cloud, that forms because of rising moist air ...
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2answers
531 views

Why cannot people burn all the atmospheric oxygen? [closed]

We are told that photosynthesis, developed a couple of billion years ago has produced all the atmospheric oxygen. I wonder, why did the process stop? Why do modern plants prefer to recover the entropy ...
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2answers
3k views

How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...